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Erik Jeppesen

Effects of hypolimnetic oxygenation on water quality: Results from five Danish lakes

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  • Lone Liboriussen
  • ,
  • Martin Søndergaard
  • ,
  • Erik Jeppesen
  • Inge Thorsgaard, Environmental Centre Roskilde
  • ,
  • Simon Grünfeld, Grontmij I Carl Bro
  • ,
  • Tue S. Jakobsen, Environmental Centre Roskilde
  • ,
  • Kim Hansen, Ministry of the Environment, Environmental Centre Roskilde

Stratified eutrophic lakes often suffer from hypolimnetic oxygen depletion during summer. This may lead to low redox conditions and accumulation of phosphate and ammonia in the hypolimnion. Hypolimnetic oxygenation has been used as a lake management strategy to improve the water quality in five eutrophic dimictic Danish lakes where oxygenation was conducted for 4-20 years. In one lake, the hypolimnetic oxygen concentration clearly improved by oxygenation, whereas the other four lakes still exhibited low mean summer levels (<2.2 mg O2 l-1). Oxygenation generally increased the hypolimnetic water temperature by 0.5-2°C, but in one lake it increased by 4-6°C. In all lakes, oxygenation significantly reduced the hypolimnetic concentrations of phosphorus and ammonia during stratification. The accumulation of phosphorus and ammonia typically decreased by 40-88%. In two lakes oxygenation was stopped for 1-2 years and here hypolimnion concentrations of both phosphorus and ammonia increased again. Surface water quality only improved in one lake, but was likely also influenced by simultaneously occurring changes in external nutrient loading. Overall, it is concluded that hypolimnetic oxygenation reduces the hypolimnetic accumulation of phosphorus and ammonia and may prevent anoxia in the deeper parts of the lake. However, long-term oxygenation is required and it is uncertain whether the overall lake water quality can be improved by oxygenation. Reduction of the external nutrient loading is still essential to improve lake water quality.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)157-172
Number of pages16
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2009

    Research areas

  • Anoxic, Lake management, Lake restoration, Nutrient accumulation, Oxygen, Oxygenation

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