Christine Parsons

Impact of Emotion on Consciousness: Positive Stimuli Enhance Conscious Reportability

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  • Kristine Rømer Thomsen
  • Hans Olav Christensen Lou
  • Morten Jønsson, Denmark
  • Jonathan A. Hyam, Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Peter Holland, Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Christine Parsons
  • Katherine S. Young, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Arne Møller
  • Alan Stein, Department of Psychiatry, University of Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Alex L. Green, Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Morten L. Kringelbach
  • Tipu Z Aziz, Department of Neurosurgery, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford, United Kingdom
  • Center for Functionally Integrative Neuroscience
  • Positron Emission Tomography Center
Emotion and reward have been proposed to be closely linked to conscious experience, but empirical data are lacking. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays a central role in the hedonic dimension of conscious experience; thus potentially a key region in interactions between emotion and consciousness. Here we tested the impact of emotion on conscious experience, and directly investigated the role of the ACC. We used a masked paradigm that measures conscious reportability in terms of subjective confidence and objective accuracy in identifying the briefly presented stimulus in a forced-choice test. By manipulating the emotional valence (positive, neutral, negative) and the presentation time (16 ms, 32 ms, 80 ms) we measured the impact of these variables on conscious and subliminal (i.e. below threshold) processing. First, we tested normal participants using face and word stimuli. Results showed that participants were more confident and accurate when consciously seeing happy versus sad/neutral faces and words. When stimuli were presented subliminally, we found no effect of emotion. To investigate the neural basis of this impact of emotion, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) directly in the ACC in a chronic pain patient. Behavioural findings were replicated: the patient was more confident and accurate when (consciously) seeing happy versus sad faces, while no effect was seen in subliminal trials. Mirroring behavioural findings, we found significant differences in the LFPs after around 500 ms (lasting 30 ms) in conscious trials between happy and sad faces, while no effect was found in subliminal trials. We thus demonstrate a striking impact of emotion on conscious experience, with positive emotional stimuli enhancing conscious reportability. In line with previous studies, the data indicate a key role of the ACC, but goes beyond earlier work by providing the first direct evidence of interaction between emotion and conscious experience in the human ACC.
Original languageEnglish
JournalP L o S One
Volume6
Issue4
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 11 Apr 2011

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