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Z. morio Hemolymph Relieves E. coli-Induced Mastitis by Inhibiting Inflammatory Response and Repairing the Blood–Milk Barrier

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  • Yunjing Zou, China Agricultural University
  • ,
  • Xue Wang, China Agricultural University
  • ,
  • Jiajia Xu
  • Shenghua Wang, China Agricultural University
  • ,
  • Shuxian Li, China Agricultural University
  • ,
  • Yaohong Zhu, China Agricultural University
  • ,
  • Jiufeng Wang, China Agricultural University

Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a major environmental pathogen causing coliform mastitis, characterized by cell death and mammary tissue damage. Our previous study has shown the antimicrobial effect of Zophobas morio (Z. morio) hemolymph against mastitis pathogens. In this study, we established E. coli-induced cellular and animal models for mastitis, aiming to evaluate the protective effect of Z. morio hemolymph against E. coli-induced mastitis in vivo and in vitro. In mice with E. coli, Z. morio hemolymph attenuated bacterial burden and histopathological impairment, reduced the production of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the ratio of CD4+ T/CD8+ T, and increased the production of IL-2 triggered by E. coli. Z. morio hemolymph also enhanced the integrity of the blood-milk barrier in E. coli-induced mastitis. In E. coli-stimulated porcine mammary epithelial cells, Z. morio hemolymph inhibited E. coli-induced inflammatory responses and upregulated tight junction proteins (ZO-1, Claudin-3 and Occludin). Moreover, we found that the anti-inflammatory effect of Z. morio hemolymph was mediated by inhibiting E. coli-induced NLRP3 inflammasome assembly, Caspase-1 activation, and reversing the inhibitory effect of E. coli on autophagy. Besides, Z. morio hemolymph augmented ATG5/ATG16L1-mediated autophagy activation, negatively regulated NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Our results reveal that Z. morio hemolymph alleviates E. coli-induced mastitis via lessening the inflammatory response by regulating the NLRP3 and ATG5/ATG16L1 signaling pathway, as well as repairing the blood-milk barrier.

TidsskriftInternational Journal of Molecular Sciences
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2022
Eksternt udgivetJa

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