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Wintering bird communities are tracking climate change faster than breeding communities

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  • Aleksi Lehikoinen, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Åke Lindström, Lund University
  • ,
  • Andrea Santangeli, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Päivi M. Sirkiä, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Lluís Brotons, Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Forest Technology Centre of Catalonia, CSIC
  • ,
  • Vincent Devictor, Universite de Montpellier
  • ,
  • Jaanus Elts, University of Tartu, Estonian Ornithological Society
  • ,
  • Ruud P.B. Foppen, Sovon Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology, Radboud University Nijmegen, European Bird Census Council
  • ,
  • Henning Heldbjerg
  • Sergi Herrando, Centre for Ecological Research and Forestry Applications, Natural History Museum of Barcelona
  • ,
  • Marc Herremans, Natuurpunt Studie
  • ,
  • Marie Anne R. Hudson, Canadian Wildlife Service
  • ,
  • Frédéric Jiguet, Sorbonne Université
  • ,
  • Alison Johnston, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, University of Cambridge
  • ,
  • Romain Lorrilliere, Sorbonne Université, Universite Paris-Sud
  • ,
  • Emma Liina Marjakangas, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Nicole L. Michel, National Audubon Society
  • ,
  • Charlotte M. Moshøj, BirdLife Denmark
  • ,
  • Renno Nellis, Estonian Ornithological Society
  • ,
  • Jean Yves Paquet, Département Études
  • ,
  • Adam C. Smith, Canadian Wildlife Service
  • ,
  • Tibor Szép, University of Nyíregyháza, MME/BirdLife Hungary
  • ,
  • Chris van Turnhout, Sovon Dutch Centre for Field Ornithology, Radboud University Nijmegen

Global climate change is driving species' distributions towards the poles and mountain tops during both non-breeding and breeding seasons, leading to changes in the composition of natural communities. However, the degree of season differences in climate-driven community shifts has not been thoroughly investigated at large spatial scales. We compared the rates of change in the community composition during both winter (non-breeding season) and summer (breeding) and their relation to temperature changes. Based on continental-scale data from Europe and North America, we examined changes in bird community composition using the community temperature index (CTI) approach and compared the changes with observed regional temperature changes during 1980–2016. CTI increased faster in winter than in summer. This seasonal discrepancy is probably because individuals are less site-faithful in winter, and can more readily shift their wintering sites in response to weather in comparison to the breeding season. Regional long-term changes in community composition were positively associated with regional temperature changes during both seasons, but the pattern was only significant during summer due to high annual variability in winter communities. Annual changes in community composition were positively associated with the annual temperature changes during both seasons. Our results were broadly consistent across continents, suggesting some climate-driven restructuring in both European and North American avian communities. Because community composition has changed much faster during the winter than during the breeding season, it is important to increase our knowledge about climate-driven impacts during the less-studied non-breeding season.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of Animal Ecology
Vol/bind90
Nummer5
Sider (fra-til)1085-1095
Antal sider11
ISSN0021-8790
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
A.L., A.S. and E.‐L.M. were funded by the Academy of Finland (projects 275606, 307909 and 323527 respectively). In addition, the research has been funded through the 2017‐2018 Belmont Forum and BiodivERsA joint call for research proposals, under the BiodivScen ERA‐Net COFUND programme, and with the funding organisations Academy of Finland (Helsinki: 326338), Swedish FORMAS Research Council (Lund: 2018‐02441) and the National Science Foundation (CLO, ICER‐1927646). The Swedish Bird Survey is supported by grants from the Swedish Environmental Protection Board. The Danish point count census survey is supported by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 British Ecological Society

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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