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Vestiges of the Pre-Caledonian Passive Margin of Baltica in the Scandinavian Caledonides: Overview, Revisions and Control on the Structure of the Mountain Belt

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  • Torgeir B. Andersen, University of Oslo
  • ,
  • Johannes Jakob, University of Oslo, Geological Survey of Norway
  • ,
  • Hans Jørgen Kjøll, University of Oslo
  • ,
  • Christian Tegner

The Pre-Caledonian margin of Baltica has been outlined as a tapering wedge with increasing magmatism towards the ocean–continent transition. It is, however, well known that margins are complex, with different and diachronous evolution along and across strike. Baltica’s vestiges in the Scandes have complexities akin to modern margins. It included a microcontinent and magma-poor hyperextended and magma-rich segments. It was probably up to 1500 km wide before distal parts were affected by plate convergence. Characteristic features are exhumed mantle peridotites and their detrital equivalents, some exposed to the seafloor by the pre-orogenic hyperextension. A major change in the architecture of the mountain belt occurred across the NW–SE trending Sveconorwegian front in the Baltican basement. This coincided with the NE termination of the Jotun-Lindås-Dalsfjord basement nappes, the remains of the Jotun Microcontinent (JMC) formed by hyperextension prior to the orogeny. Mantle with ophicalcite breccias exhumed by hyperextension are covered by deep-marine sediments and local conglomerates. Baltican basement slivers are common in the transitional crust basins. Outboard the JMC, the margin was magma-rich. The main break-up magmatism at 605 ± 10 Ma was part of the vast Central Iapetus Magmatic Province. The along-strike heterogeneity of the margin controlled diachronous and contrasting tectonic evolution during the later Caledonian plate convergence and collision.

TidsskriftGeosciences (Switzerland)
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Funding: This research was funded by the Research Council of Norway (Norges Forskningsråd (NFR), Fri-Nat Project 250327): Hyperextension in magma-poor and magma-rich domains along the Pre-Caledonian Margin of Baltica and Research Council of Norway through its Centers of Excellence funding scheme, project number 223272.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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