Introduction: Kidney dysfunction poses a high burden on patients and health care systems. Early detection and accurate prediction of kidney disease progression remains a major challenge. Compared to existing clinical parameters, urinary proteomics has the potential to reveal molecular alterations within the kidney that may alter its function before the onset of clinical symptoms. Thus, urinary proteomics has greater prognostic potential for assessment of kidney dysfunction progression.Areas covered: Advances in urinary proteomics for major causes of kidney dysfunction are discussed. The application of urinary extracellular vesicles for studying kidney dysfunction are discussed. Technological advances in urinary proteomics are discussed. The literature was identified using a database search for titles containing 'proteom*' and 'urin*' and published within the past 5 years. Retrieved literature was manually filtered to retain kidney dysfunctions-related studies.Expert opinion: Despite major advances, diagnosis by urinary proteomics has not been fully applied in any clinical settings. This could be attributed to the complex nature of kidney diseases, in addition to the constraints on study power and feasibility of incorporating mass spectrometry techniques in daily routine analysis. Nevertheless, we are confident that advances in urinary proteomics will soon provide superior insights into kidney disease beyond existing clinical parameters.