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Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A population-based cohort study

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BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes and obesity may be inversely associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but the evidence is controversial.

METHODS: Using Danish, nationwide registries (1980-2016), we identified patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (N = 295,653) and patients with a diagnosis of obesity (N = 312,108). Patients were matched (1:3) to persons from the general population on birth year and sex. We computed incidence rates and Cox regression derived hazard ratios (HRs) of a diagnosis of ALS. In multivariable analyses, HRs were controlled for sex, birth year, calendar year, and comorbidities.

RESULTS: We observed 168 incident cases of ALS (0.7 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6-0.8] per 10,000 person-years) among patients with type 2 diabetes and 859 incident cases of ALS (0.9 [95% CI: 0.9-1.0] per 10,000 person-years) among matched comparators. The adjusted HR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.72-1.04). The association was present among men (adjusted HR: 0.78 [95% CI: 0.62-0.99]) but not women (adjusted HR: 1.03 [95% CI: 0.78-1.37]), and among those aged ≥60 years (adjusted HR: 0.75 [95% CI: 0.59-0.96]) but not younger. We observed 111 ALS events (0.4 [95% CI: 0.4-0.5] per 10,000 person-years) among obesity patients and 431 ALS events (0.5 [95% CI: 0.5-0.6] per 10,000 person-years) among comparators. The adjusted HR was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.70-1.11).

CONCLUSIONS: Diagnoses of type 2 diabetes and obesity were associated with a reduced rate of ALS compared with general population comparators, particularly among men and patients aged 60 years or above. However, absolute rate differences were small.

TidsskriftBrain and Behavior
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2023

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