Travel burden and clinical presentation of retinoblastoma: analysis of 1024 patients from 43 African countries and 518 patients from 40 European countries

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  • Ido Didi Fabian, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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  • Andrew W Stacey, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Allen Foster, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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  • Tero T Kivelä, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital
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  • Francis L Munier, Center for BioMedical Imaging, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
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  • Naama Keren-Froim, Tel Aviv University (TAU), Tel Aviv
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  • Nir Gomel, Tel Aviv University (TAU), Tel Aviv
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  • Nathalie Cassoux, 5LPO-BirdLife France, France
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  • Mandeep S Sagoo, NIHR Biomedical Research Center for Ophthalmology at Moorfields Eye Hospital and UCL Institute of Ophthalmology and London Retinoblastoma Service
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  • M Ashwin Reddy, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.
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  • Lamis Al Harby, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.
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  • Marcia Zondervan, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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  • Covadonga Bascaran, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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  • Elhassan Abdallah, University Mohammed V Agdal
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  • Shehu U Abdullahi, Bayero University
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  • Sahadatou Adamou Boubacar, Niger, Burkina Faso
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  • Dupe S Ademola-Popoola, University of Ilorin and University of IlorinTeaching Hospital
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  • Adedayo Adio, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital
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  • Ada E Aghaji, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu Nigeria.
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  • Silvia Alarcón Portabella, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Amadou I Alfa Bio, National High School of Agricultural Sciences and Technologies, University of Parakou
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  • Amany M Ali, Assiut Univ, Assiut University, Dept Food Sci & Technol, Fac Agr
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  • Donjeta B Alia, University Hospital Center 'Mother Theresa'
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  • Charlotta All-Eriksson, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
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  • Argentino A Almeida, Ministry Of Health Mozambique
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  • Khalifa M Alsawidi, Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Tripoli, P.O. Box 13227, Tripoli, Libya
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  • Romanzo Antonino, Italy
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  • Nicholas J Astbury, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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  • Rose Atsiaya, Light House For Christ Eye Center
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  • Julia Balaguer, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Walentyna Balwierz, Jagiellonian University Medical College
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  • Honorio Barranco, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Maja Beck Popovic, Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, University Hospital (CHUV) and University of Lausanne
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  • Sarra Benmiloud, University Hassan II Fès
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  • Nissrine Bennani Guebessi, Center Hospitalier et Universitaire Ibn Rochd
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  • Rokia C Berete, CHU de Yopougon, Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
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  • Shelley J Biddulph, University of the Witwatersrand
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  • Eva M Biewald, Institute for Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany.
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  • Sharon Blum, Tel Aviv University (TAU), Tel Aviv
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  • Nadia Bobrova, The Filatov Institute of Eye diseases and Tissue Therapy
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  • Marianna Boehme, Institute for Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany.
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  • Norbert Bornfeld, Institute for Virology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147 Essen, Germany.
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  • Gabrielle C Bouda, Center Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou
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  • Hédi Bouguila, Private practice, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • Amaria Boumedane, Algeria University
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  • Bénédicte G Brichard, Royal observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussel, Belgium
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  • Michael Capra L, National Cancer Registry Ireland, Cork, Ireland.
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  • Guilherme Castela, Coimbra Herbarium, University of Coimbra
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  • Jaume Català-Mora, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Guillermo L Chantada, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Violeta S Chernodrinska, Atlantis Medical University College, Atlantis Medical University College
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  • Faraja S Chiwanga, University of Tanzania
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  • Krzysztof Cieslik, Department of Cardiology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
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  • Codruta Comsa, Oncology Institute 'Prof. Dr. Al. Trestioreanu' Bucharest
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  • Maria G Correa Llano, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Monika Csóka, Semmelweis University of Budapest, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest, Hungary.
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  • Isac V Da Gama, Ministry Of Health Mozambique
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  • Alan Davidson, Red Cross Children's War Memorial Hospital and the University of Cape Town
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  • Patrick De Potter, Royal observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, B-1180 Brussel, Belgium
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  • Laurence Desjardins, 5LPO-BirdLife France, France
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  • Monica D Dragomir, Oncology Institute 'Prof. Dr. Al. Trestioreanu' Bucharest
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  • Magritha Du Bruyn, Univ KwaZulu Natal, University of Kwazulu Natal, Sch Chem & Phys
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  • Asmaa El Kettani, Center Hospitalier et Universitaire Ibn Rochd
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  • Amal M Elbahi, Zoology Department, Faculty of Sciences, The University of Tripoli, P.O. Box 13227, Tripoli, Libya
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  • Dina Elgalaly, Wael Mamdouh (iNANO), The National Research Center (NRC) in Cairo, Egypt and Pharos University in Alexandria (PUA), Egypt
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  • Alaa M Elhaddad, Wael Mamdouh (iNANO), The National Research Center (NRC) in Cairo, Egypt and Pharos University in Alexandria (PUA), Egypt
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  • Moawia M Ali Elhassan, University of Gezira
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  • Mahmoud M Elzembely, Assiut Univ, Assiut University, Dept Food Sci & Technol, Fac Agr
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  • Vera A Essuman, Dental School University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
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  • Ted Grimbert A Evina, Magrabi ICO Cameroon Eye Institute
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  • Oluyemi Fasina, Univ Coll Hosp, University College Hospital, Ibadan, University of Ibadan
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  • Ana Fernández-Teijeiro, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Moira Gandiwa, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Chichiri, Blantyre, Malawi;
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  • David García Aldana, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Jennifer A Geel, University of the Witwatersrand
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  • Zelalem Gizachew, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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  • Pernille A Gregersen
  • Koffi M Guedenon, Experimental Zooprophylactic Institute of Umbria and Marche "Togo Rosati"
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  • Theodora Hadjistilianou, University of Siena & Eindhoven University of Technology, Siena
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  • Sadiq Hassan, Bayero University
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  • Stanislava Hederova, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care
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  • Laila Hessissen, Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Department of Rabat - Mohammed V University
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  • Diriba F Hordofa, Jimma University Medical Center
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  • Marlies Hummlen, Department of Gynaecologic Oncology, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Institute for Cancer Genetics and Informatics, Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Faculty of Medicine, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
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  • Kristina Husakova, Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Dept Anesthesiol & Crit Care
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  • Russo Ida, Italy
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  • Vesna R Ilic, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia
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  • Helen Jenkinson, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.
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  • Theophile B Amani Kabesha, Bukavu Eye Clinic - Bukavu Official University
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  • Rolande L Kabore, Center Hospitalier Universitaire Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou
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  • Abubakar Kalinaki, Department of Pediatrics and Child Health College of Health Sciences, Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
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  • Noa Kapelushnik, Tel Aviv University (TAU), Tel Aviv
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  • Tamar Kardava, Georgia Inst Technol, University System of Georgia, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dept Math
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  • Pavlin Kroumov Kemilev, Atlantis Medical University College, Atlantis Medical University College
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  • Tomas Kepak, Univ Hosp Brno, University Hospital Brno
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  • Zaza Khotenashvili, Georgia Inst Technol, University System of Georgia, Georgia Institute of Technology, Dept Math
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  • Artur Klett, Estonia
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  • Jess Elio Kosh Komba Palet, Central African Republic.
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  • Dalia Krivaitiene, University Hospital Santaros Clinic
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  • Mariana Kruger, Stellenbosch Univ, Stellenbosch University, Dept Physiol Sci
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  • Alice Kyara, University of Tanzania
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  • Eva S Lachmann, Institute of Biophysics and Radiobiology, University-Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg
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  • Slobodanka Latinović, Clinical Center Of Vojvodina - University Eye Clinic
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  • Karin Lecuona, Univ Cape Town, University of Cape Town, Dept Anesthesiol
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  • Robert M Lukamba, University of Lubumbashi
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  • Livia Lumbroso, 5LPO-BirdLife France, France
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  • Lesia Lysytsia, Main Astronomical Observatory, Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, vul. Akademika Zabolotnoho 27, UA-03680 Kyiv, Ukraine
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  • Erika Maka, Semmelweis University of Budapest, Heart and Vascular Center, Budapest, Hungary.
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  • Mayuri Makan, Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, Zimbabwe
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  • Chatonda Manda, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Chichiri, Blantyre, Malawi;
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  • Nieves Martín Begue, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Ibrahim O Matende, Light House For Christ Eye Center
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  • Marchelo Matua, Advocacy Department, UWOCASO (Uganda Women's Cancer Support Organization), Kampala, Uganda.
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  • Ismail Mayet, University of the Witwatersrand
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  • Freddy B Mbumba, Univ Botswana, University of Botswana, Dept Phys
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  • Aemero A Mengesha, Jimma University Ethiopia
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  • Edoardo Midena, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
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  • Furahini G Mndeme, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center
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  • Ahmed A Mohamedani, University of Gezira
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  • Annette C Moll, Netherlands Genomics Initiative (NGI)-sponsored Netherlands Consortium for Healthy Aging (NCHA), Leiden, 2593, The Netherlands.
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  • Claude Moreira, Gaston berger University, Saint_Louis, Senegal
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  • Mchikirwa S Msina, Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Center
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  • Gerald Msukwa, College of Medicine, University of Malawi, Chichiri, Blantyre, Malawi;
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  • Kangwa I Muma, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
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  • Gabriela Murgoi, Oncology Institute 'Prof. Dr. Al. Trestioreanu' Bucharest
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  • Kareem O Musa, Lagos University Teaching Hospital/College of Medicine of the University of Lagos
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  • Hamzah Mustak, Univ Cape Town, University of Cape Town, Dept Anesthesiol
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  • Okwen M Muyen, Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation-Cameroon
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  • Gita Naidu, University of the Witwatersrand
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  • Larisa Naumenko, N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus
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  • Paule Aïda Ndoye Roth, Cheikh Anta DIOP University of Dakar
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  • Vladimir Neroev, Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases
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  • Marina Nikitovic, Institute for Oncology and Radiology of Serbia
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  • Elizabeth D Nkanga, Department of Ophthalmology University of Calabar Teaching Hospital Calabar Cross River State
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  • Henry Nkumbe, Magrabi ICO Cameroon Eye Institute
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  • Mutale Nyaywa, Department of Clinical Studies, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379, Lusaka, Zambia.
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  • Ghislaine Obono-Obiang, Centre de Recherches Médicales de Lambaréné, Lambaréné, Gabon.
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  • Ngozi C Oguego, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu Nigeria.
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  • Andrzej Olechowski, Department of Cardiology, The Children's Memorial Health Institute, Warsaw, Poland.
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  • Alexander Hugo Oscar, Atlantis Medical University College, Atlantis Medical University College
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  • Peter Osei-Bonsu, Dental School University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
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  • Sally L Painter, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.
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  • Vivian Paintsil, Dental School University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana.
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  • Luisa Paiva, National Ophthalmological Institute of Angola
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  • Ruzanna Papyan, Yerevan State Medical University
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  • Raffaele Parrozzani, University of Padova, Padova, Italy
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  • Manoj Parulekar, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.
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  • Katarzyna Pawinska-Wasikowska, Jagiellonian University Medical College
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  • Sanja Perić, University Hospital Center Zagreb, School of Medicine University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia.
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  • Remezo Philbert, Center Hospitaliere Universitaire de Kamenge
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  • Pavel Pochop, Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Charles University and University Hospital Motol, Prague, Czech Republic.
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  • Vladimir G Polyakov, SRI of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology of N.N. Blokhin National Medical Research Center of Oncology of Russian Federation
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  • Manca T Pompe, Univ. Medical Center Ljubljana
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  • Jonathan J Pons, Univ Swaziland
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  • Léa Raobela, Center Hospitalier Universitaire Joseph Ravoahangy Andrianavalona
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  • Lorna A Renner, University of Ghana School of Medicine and Dentistry
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  • David Reynders, University of Pretoria
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  • Dahiru Ribadu, National Research Center-Institute of Immunology Federal Medical-Biological Agency of Russia, Moscow, Russia.
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  • Mussagy M Riheia, Ministry Of Health Mozambique
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  • Petra Ritter-Sovinz, Cancer Biology Unit, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
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  • Svetlana Saakyan, Moscow Helmholtz Research Institute of Eye Diseases
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  • Azza Ma Said, Ain Shams University
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  • Sonsoles San Román Pacheco, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Trish A Scanlan, University of Tanzania
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  • Judy Schoeman, University of Pretoria
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  • Stefan Seregard, Novartis Sweden AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
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  • Sadik T Sherief, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
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  • Sidi Sidi Cheikh, Nouakchott Medical University
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  • Sónia Silva, Coimbra Herbarium, University of Coimbra
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  • Tetyana Sorochynska, The Filatov Institute of Eye diseases and Tissue Therapy
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  • Grace Ssali, Advocacy Department, UWOCASO (Uganda Women's Cancer Support Organization), Kampala, Uganda.
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  • Christina Stathopoulos, Center for BioMedical Imaging, Lausanne University Hospital and University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland.
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  • Branka Stirn Kranjc, Univ. Medical Center Ljubljana
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  • David K Stones, University of the Free Sate
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  • Fatoumata Sylla, Africa Institute of Tropical Ophtalmology
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  • Alketa Tandili, University Hospital Center 'Mother Theresa'
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  • Bekim Tateshi, University Eye Clinic, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany
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  • Harba Tyau-Tyau, Chad.
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  • Nevyana V Veleva-Krasteva, Atlantis Medical University College, Atlantis Medical University College
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  • Maris Viksnins, Children's Clinical University Hospital
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  • Werner Wackernagel, Cancer Biology Unit, Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria; Center for Medical Research, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
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  • Keith Waddell, Advocacy Department, UWOCASO (Uganda Women's Cancer Support Organization), Kampala, Uganda.
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  • Patricia D Wade, Jos University Teaching Hospital
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  • Amina H Wali Nigeria, National Eye Center Kaduna
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  • Amelia Dc Wime, National Ophthalmological Institute of Angola
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  • Charlotte Wolley Dod, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Jenny M Yanga, SOSF, DRC
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  • Vera A Yarovaya, VSEGEI (A.P.Karpinsky All Russia Research Geological Institute), 74 Sredny Prospect, St. Petersburg 199106, Russia
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  • Andrey A Yarovoy, VSEGEI (A.P.Karpinsky All Russia Research Geological Institute), 74 Sredny Prospect, St. Petersburg 199106, Russia
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  • Ekhtelbenina Zein, Center National d'Oncologie
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  • Shirley Sharabi, Chaim Sheba Med Ctr, Chaim Sheba Medical Center, Inst Oncol
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  • Katsiaryna Zhilyaeva, N.N. Alexandrov National Cancer Center of Belarus
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  • Othman Ao Ziko, Ain Shams University
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  • Richard Bowman, UK acrodysostosis patients' group, London, UK.

BACKGROUND: The travel distance from home to a treatment centre, which may impact the stage at diagnosis, has not been investigated for retinoblastoma, the most common childhood eye cancer. We aimed to investigate the travel burden and its impact on clinical presentation in a large sample of patients with retinoblastoma from Africa and Europe.

METHODS: A cross-sectional analysis including 518 treatment-naïve patients with retinoblastoma residing in 40 European countries and 1024 treatment-naïve patients with retinoblastoma residing in 43 African countries.

RESULTS: Capture rate was 42.2% of expected patients from Africa and 108.8% from Europe. African patients were older (95% CI -12.4 to -5.4, p<0.001), had fewer cases of familial retinoblastoma (95% CI 2.0 to 5.3, p<0.001) and presented with more advanced disease (95% CI 6.0 to 9.8, p<0.001); 43.4% and 15.4% of Africans had extraocular retinoblastoma and distant metastasis at the time of diagnosis, respectively, compared to 2.9% and 1.0% of the Europeans. To reach a retinoblastoma centre, European patients travelled 421.8 km compared to Africans who travelled 185.7 km (p<0.001). On regression analysis, lower-national income level, African residence and older age (p<0.001), but not travel distance (p=0.19), were risk factors for advanced disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Fewer than half the expected number of patients with retinoblastoma presented to African referral centres in 2017, suggesting poor awareness or other barriers to access. Despite the relatively shorter distance travelled by African patients, they presented with later-stage disease. Health education about retinoblastoma is needed for carers and health workers in Africa in order to increase capture rate and promote early referral.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftBritish Journal of Ophthalmology
ISSN0007-1161
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - sep. 2020

Bibliografisk note

© Author(s) (or their employer(s)) 2020. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.

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