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The Tracking of Moist Habitats Allowed Aiphanes (Arecaceae) to Cover the Elevation Gradient of the Northern Andes

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  • María José Sanín, Universidad CES, Arizona State University, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • ,
  • Finn Borchsenius
  • Margot Paris, University of Fribourg
  • ,
  • Sara Carvalho-Madrigal, Universidad CES
  • ,
  • Andrés Camilo Gómez Hoyos, Universidad CES
  • ,
  • Agustín Cardona, Universidad Nacional de Colombia
  • ,
  • Natalia Arcila Marín, Universidad CES
  • ,
  • Yerson Ospina, Universidad CES
  • ,
  • Saúl E. Hoyos-Gómez, Universidad de Antioquia
  • ,
  • Héctor Favio Manrique, Jardín Botánico del Quindío
  • ,
  • Rodrigo Bernal, Reserva Natural Guadualito
The topographic gradients of the Tropical Andes may have triggered species divergence by different mechanisms. Topography separates species’ geographical ranges and offers climatic heterogeneity, which could potentially foster local adaptation to specific climatic conditions and result in narrowly distributed endemic species. Such a pattern is found in the Andean centered palm genus Aiphanes. To test the extent to which geographic barriers and climatic heterogeneity can explain distribution patterns in Aiphanes, we sampled 34 out of 36 currently recognized species in that genus and sequenced them by Sanger sequencing and/or sequence target capture sequencing. We generated Bayesian, likelihood, and species-tree phylogenies, with which we explored climatic trait evolution from current climatic occupation. We also estimated species distribution models to test the relative roles of geographical and climatic divergence in their evolution. We found that Aiphanes originated in the Miocene in Andean environments and possibly in mid-elevation habitats. Diversification is related to the occupation of the adjacent high and low elevation habitats tracking high annual precipitation and low precipitation seasonality (moist habitats). Different species in different clades repeatedly occupy all the different temperatures offered by the elevation gradient from 0 to 3,000 m in different geographically isolated areas. A pattern of conserved adaptation to moist environments is consistent among the clades. Our results stress the evolutionary roles of niche truncation of wide thermal tolerance by physical range fragmentation, coupled with water-related niche conservatism, to colonize the topographic gradient.
TidsskriftFrontiers in Plant Science
Antal sider17
StatusUdgivet - jun. 2022

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
This study was funded by the Colciencias grants 173-2016 and 80740-606-2019 to MS and AC.

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2022 Sanín, Borchsenius, Paris, Carvalho-Madrigal, Gómez Hoyos, Cardona, Arcila Marín, Ospina, Hoyos-Gómez, Manrique and Bernal.

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