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The TGFβ system and TIMP1 and 3 genotypes in Turner syndrome-Relation with aortic congenital malformations

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OBJECTIVE: Cardiovascular complications and congenital malformations are known traits in Turner syndrome (TS), which increases mortality. Women with TS have varying phenotype and cardiovascular risks. A biomarker assessing the risk for cardiovascular complications could potentially reduce mortality in high-risk TS and reduce screening in TS participants with low cardiovascular risk.

DESIGN, PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS AND MEASUREMENTS: As part of a study initiated in 2002, 87 TS participants and 64 controls were invited to magnetic resonance imaging of the aorta, anthropometry, and biochemical markers. TS participants were re-examined thrice lastly in 2016. The focus of this paper is the additional measurements of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP's), tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (TIMP), peripheral blood DNA and their associations with TS and the cardiovascular risk and congenital heart disease.

RESULTS: TS participants had lower TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 values compared to controls. snp11547635 heterozygosity was not associated with any biomarkers but was associated with increased risk of aortic regurgitation. TIMP4 and TGFβ1 were correlated with the aortic diameter at several measuring positions. During follow-up, the antihypertensive treatment decreased the descending aortic diameter and increased TGFβ1 and TGFβ2 levels in TS.

CONCLUSION: TGFβ and TIMP's are altered in TS and may play a role in the development of coarctation and dilated aorta. snp11547635 heterozygosity was not found to impact biochemical markers. Further studies should investigate these biomarkers to further unravel the pathogenesis of the increased cardiovascular risk in TS participants.

TidsskriftClinical Endocrinology
Sider (fra-til)545-551
Antal sider7
StatusUdgivet - dec. 2023

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