The Effects of 12-Weeks Whey Protein Supplements on Markers of Bone Turnover in Adults With Abdominal Obesity: A Post Hoc Analysis

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Background: While osteoporosis is characterized by skeletal fragility due to increased bone turnover and low bone mineral density (BMD), subjects with abdominal obesity and type-2 diabetes have increased risk of bone fractures despite low bone turnover and increased BMD. Diets with increased protein content are reported to increase bone turnover in healthy adults and may be a point of interest in preserving bone strength in subjects with abdominal obesity and/or type-2 diabetes. Methods: We examined the effect of 12-weeks dietary intervention on bone turnover in 64 adults with abdominal obesity using data from the MERITS trial. The trial was a randomized, controlled, double blinded study in which participants were allocated to receive either 60 g/d of whey protein hydrolysate or maltodextrin in combination with either high (30 g/d) or low dietary fiber intake (10 g/d). Primarily, we assessed changes in plasma markers of bone turnover Procollagen type 1 N-terminal propeptide (p1NP), C-terminal telopeptide type-1 collagen (CTX), and parathyroid hormone (PTH) within the four intervention groups. In addition, we measured u-calcium and u-carbamide excretion, 25(OH)D, and BMD by whole body DXA scans. Finally, we compared changes in insulin resistance (Homeostasis-model assessment of insulin resistance, HOMA-IR) with changes in bone turnover markers. The trial was registered at as NCT02931630. Results: Sixty-four subjects were included in the study. We did not find any effect of twelve weeks of high protein or high fiber intake on plasma levels of P1NP or CTX. There was a nonsignificant positive association between protein intake and PTH levels (p=0.06). U-calcium and u-carbamide increased in both protein groups. There was a positive association between change in HOMA-IR and PTH (p=0.042), while changes in P1NP and CTX did not associate to changes in HOMA-IR. Conclusion: Twelve weeks of increased whey protein intake in subjects with abdominal obesity did not affect markers of bone turnover significantly, although tended to increase PTH levels. Dietary fiber intake did not affect bone turnover. We report a positive association between change in HOMA-IR and PTH supporting a hypothesis of insulin resistance as a potential key factor in the expanding field of bone fragility in T2D subjects.

TidsskriftFrontiers in Endocrinology
Antal sider7
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2022

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