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Subdividing Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 reveals Norse Viking dispersal lineages in Britain

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DOI

  • Gurdeep Matharu Lall, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Maarten H.D. Larmuseau, KU Leuven, Histories vzw
  • ,
  • Jon H. Wetton, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Chiara Batini, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Pille Hallast, University of Leicester, Wellcome Sanger Institute, University of Tartu
  • ,
  • Tunde I. Huszar, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Daniel Zadik, University of Leicester, University of Nottingham
  • ,
  • Sigurd Aase, Postboks 420
  • ,
  • Tina Baker, University of Leicester, University of Edinburgh
  • ,
  • Patricia Balaresque, Universite Toulouse III - Paul Sabatier
  • ,
  • Walter Bodmer, University of Oxford
  • ,
  • Anders D. Børglum
  • Peter de Knijff, Leiden University
  • ,
  • Hayley Dunn, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Stephen E. Harding, University of Nottingham, University of Oslo
  • ,
  • Harald Løvvik, Lille Borgenveien 2B
  • ,
  • Berit Myhre Dupuy, Norwegian Institute of Public Health
  • ,
  • Horolma Pamjav, Institute of Forensic Genetics
  • ,
  • Andreas O. Tillmar, Linköping University
  • ,
  • Maciej Tomaszewski, Manchester University, Manchester University NHS Foundation Trust
  • ,
  • Chris Tyler-Smith, Wellcome Sanger Institute
  • ,
  • Marta Pereira Verdugo, University of Leicester, Trinity College Dublin
  • ,
  • Bruce Winney, University of Oxford
  • ,
  • Pragya Vohra, University of Leicester, University of York
  • ,
  • Joanna Story, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Turi E. King, University of Leicester
  • ,
  • Mark A. Jobling, University of Leicester

The influence of Viking-Age migrants to the British Isles is obvious in archaeological and place-names evidence, but their demographic impact has been unclear. Autosomal genetic analyses support Norse Viking contributions to parts of Britain, but show no signal corresponding to the Danelaw, the region under Scandinavian administrative control from the ninth to eleventh centuries. Y-chromosome haplogroup R1a1 has been considered as a possible marker for Viking migrations because of its high frequency in peninsular Scandinavia (Norway and Sweden). Here we select ten Y-SNPs to discriminate informatively among hg R1a1 sub-haplogroups in Europe, analyse these in 619 hg R1a1 Y chromosomes including 163 from the British Isles, and also type 23 short-tandem repeats (Y-STRs) to assess internal diversity. We find three specifically Western-European sub-haplogroups, two of which predominate in Norway and Sweden, and are also found in Britain; star-like features in the STR networks of these lineages indicate histories of expansion. We ask whether geographical distributions of hg R1a1 overall, and of the two sub-lineages in particular, correlate with regions of Scandinavian influence within Britain. Neither shows any frequency difference between regions that have higher (≥10%) or lower autosomal contributions from Norway and Sweden, but both are significantly overrepresented in the region corresponding to the Danelaw. These differences between autosomal and Y-chromosomal histories suggest either male-specific contribution, or the influence of patrilocality. Comparison of modern DNA with recently available ancient DNA data supports the interpretation that two sub-lineages of hg R1a1 spread with the Vikings from peninsular Scandinavia.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftEuropean Journal of Human Genetics
Vol/bind29
Nummer3
Sider (fra-til)512-523
Antal sider12
ISSN1018-4813
DOI
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements We thank all DNA donors, Mark Thomas for supplying DNA samples, Garrett Hellenthal for discussions about European contributions to the British Isles as presented in the PoBI study, and Judith Jesch for insights into Viking history. GML, CB, PH, DZ and MAJ were supported by a Wellcome Trust Senior Fellowship grant, no. 087576; TEK by Wellcome Trust grant no. 084060; WFB and BW by Wellcome Trust grants 072974 and 088262; JHW, PV and TEK by Leverhulme Trust grant no. F/00 212/AM to JS; PB by Wellcome Trust grant no. 057559; TIH by a BBSRC iCASE studentship, grant ref. BB/M016706/1; MT and MAJ by British Heart Foundation grant PG/16/49/32176; and HD and PMD by PhD studentships from the University of Leicester. MHDL was supported by FWO-Vlaanderen (Research Foundation-Flanders) and the KU Leuven BOF—C1-grant C12/15/013. CTS was supported by Wellcome Trust grant no. 098051.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s).

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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