Structure and Dynamics of Individual Diastereomeric Complexes on Platinum: Surface Studies Related to Heterogeneous Enantioselective Catalysis

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  • Yi Dong, Univ Laval, Laval University, Dept Chem
  • ,
  • Guillaume Goubert, Univ Laval, Laval University, Dept Chem
  • ,
  • Michael N. Groves
  • ,
  • Jean-Christian Lemay, Univ Laval, Laval University, Dept Chem
  • ,
  • Bjork Hammer
  • Peter H. McBreen, Univ Laval, Laval University, Dept Chem

CONSPECTUS: The modification of heterogeneous catalysts through the chemisorption of chiral molecules is a method to create catalytic sites for enantioselective surface reactions. The chiral molecule is called a chiral modifier by analogy to the terms chiral auxiliary or chiral ligand used in homogeneous asymmetric catalysis. While there has been progress in understanding how chirality transfer occurs, the intrinsic difficulties in determining enantioselective reaction mechanisms are compounded by the multisite nature of heterogeneous catalysts and by the challenges facing stereospecific surface analysis. However, molecular descriptions have now emerged that are sufficiently detailed to herald rapid advances in the area. The driving force for the development of heterogeneous enantioselective catalysts stems, at the minimum, from the practical advantages they might offer over their homogeneous counterparts in terms of process scalability and catalyst reusability. The broader rewards from their study lie in the insights gained on factors controlling selectivity in heterogeneous catalysis. Reactions on surfaces to produce a desired enantiomer in high excess are particularly challenging since at room temperature, barrier differences as low as similar to 2 kcal/mol between pathways to R and S products are sufficient to yield an enantiomeric ratio (er) of 90:10. Such small energy differences are comparable to weak interadsorbate interaction energies and are much smaller than chemisorption or even most physisorption energies.

In this Account, we describe combined experimental and theoretical surface studies of individual diastereomeric complexes formed between chiral modifiers and prochiral reactants on the Pt(111) surface. Our work is inspired by the catalysis literature on the enantioselective hydrogenation of activated ketones on cinchona-modified Pt catalysts. Using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) measurements and density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we probe the structures and relative abundances of noncovalently bonded complexes formed between three representative prochiral molecules and (R)-(+)-1-(1-naphthyl)ethylamine ((R)-NEA). All three prochiral molecules, 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone (TFAP), ketopantolactone (KPL), and methyl 3,3,3-trifluoropyruvate (MTFP), are found to form multiple complexation configurations around the ethylamine group of chemisorbed (R)-NEA. The principal intermolecular interaction is NH center dot center dot center dot O H-bonding. In each case, submolecularly resolved STM images permit the determination of the prochiral ratio (pr), pro-R to pro-S, proper to specific locations around the ethylamine group. The overall pr observed in experiments on large ensembles of KPL (R)-NEA complexes is close to the er reported in the literature for the hydrogenation of KPL to pantolactone on (R)-NEA-modified Pt catalysts at 1 bar H-2. The results of independent DFT and STM studies are merged to determine the geometries of the most abundant complexation configurations. The structures reveal the hierarchy of chemisorption and sometimes multiple H-bonding interactions operating in complexes. In particular, privileged complexes formed by KPL and MTFP reveal the participation of secondary CH center dot center dot center dot O interactions in stereocontrol. State-specific STM measurements on individual TFAP (R)-NEA complexes show that complexation states interconvert through processes including prochiral inversion. The state-specific information on structure, prochirality, dynamics, and energy barriers delivered by the combination of DFT and STM provides insight on how to design better chiral modifiers.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAccounts of Chemical Research
Vol/bind50
Nummer5
Sider (fra-til)1163-1170
Antal sider8
ISSN0001-4842
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2017

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