Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch

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Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch. / Venkadesan, Madhusudhan; Yawar, Ali; Eng, Carolyn M.; Dias, Marcelo Azevedo; Singh, Dhiraj K. ; Tommasini, Steven M.; Haims, Andrew H.; Bandi, Mahesh M.; Mandre, Shreyas.

I: Nature, Bind 579, Nr. 7797, 03.2020, s. 97-100.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Harvard

Venkadesan, M, Yawar, A, Eng, CM, Dias, MA, Singh, DK, Tommasini, SM, Haims, AH, Bandi, MM & Mandre, S 2020, 'Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch', Nature, bind 579, nr. 7797, s. 97-100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

APA

Venkadesan, M., Yawar, A., Eng, C. M., Dias, M. A., Singh, D. K., Tommasini, S. M., Haims, A. H., Bandi, M. M., & Mandre, S. (2020). Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch. Nature, 579(7797), 97-100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

CBE

Venkadesan M, Yawar A, Eng CM, Dias MA, Singh DK, Tommasini SM, Haims AH, Bandi MM, Mandre S. 2020. Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch. Nature. 579(7797):97-100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

MLA

Vancouver

Venkadesan M, Yawar A, Eng CM, Dias MA, Singh DK, Tommasini SM o.a. Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch. Nature. 2020 mar;579(7797):97-100. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

Author

Venkadesan, Madhusudhan ; Yawar, Ali ; Eng, Carolyn M. ; Dias, Marcelo Azevedo ; Singh, Dhiraj K. ; Tommasini, Steven M. ; Haims, Andrew H. ; Bandi, Mahesh M. ; Mandre, Shreyas. / Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch. I: Nature. 2020 ; Bind 579, Nr. 7797. s. 97-100.

Bibtex

@article{da0558412244438bbada4f5ba20e11c1,
title = "Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch",
abstract = "The stiff human foot enables an efficient push-off when walking or running, and was critical for the evolution of bipedalism 1–6. The uniquely arched morphology of the human midfoot is thought to stiffen it 5–9, whereas other primates have flat feet that bend severely in the midfoot 7,10,11. However, the relationship between midfoot geometry and stiffness remains debated in foot biomechanics 12,13, podiatry 14,15 and palaeontology 4–6. These debates centre on the medial longitudinal arch 5,6 and have not considered whether stiffness is affected by the second, transverse tarsal arch of the human foot 16. Here we show that the transverse tarsal arch, acting through the inter-metatarsal tissues, is responsible for more than 40% of the longitudinal stiffness of the foot. The underlying principle resembles a floppy currency note that stiffens considerably when it curls transversally. We derive a dimensionless curvature parameter that governs the stiffness contribution of the transverse tarsal arch, demonstrate its predictive power using mechanical models of the foot and find its skeletal correlate in hominin feet. In the foot, the material properties of the inter-metatarsal tissues and the mobility of the metatarsals may additionally influence the longitudinal stiffness of the foot and thus the curvature–stiffness relationship of the transverse tarsal arch. By analysing fossils, we track the evolution of the curvature parameter among extinct hominins and show that a human-like transverse arch was a key step in the evolution of human bipedalism that predates the genus Homo by at least 1.5 million years. This renewed understanding of the foot may improve the clinical treatment of flatfoot disorders, the design of robotic feet and the study of foot function in locomotion. ",
author = "Madhusudhan Venkadesan and Ali Yawar and Eng, {Carolyn M.} and Dias, {Marcelo Azevedo} and Singh, {Dhiraj K.} and Tommasini, {Steven M.} and Haims, {Andrew H.} and Bandi, {Mahesh M.} and Shreyas Mandre",
year = "2020",
month = mar,
doi = "10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y",
language = "English",
volume = "579",
pages = "97--100",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "7797",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Stiffness of the human foot and evolution of the transverse arch

AU - Venkadesan, Madhusudhan

AU - Yawar, Ali

AU - Eng, Carolyn M.

AU - Dias, Marcelo Azevedo

AU - Singh, Dhiraj K.

AU - Tommasini, Steven M.

AU - Haims, Andrew H.

AU - Bandi, Mahesh M.

AU - Mandre, Shreyas

PY - 2020/3

Y1 - 2020/3

N2 - The stiff human foot enables an efficient push-off when walking or running, and was critical for the evolution of bipedalism 1–6. The uniquely arched morphology of the human midfoot is thought to stiffen it 5–9, whereas other primates have flat feet that bend severely in the midfoot 7,10,11. However, the relationship between midfoot geometry and stiffness remains debated in foot biomechanics 12,13, podiatry 14,15 and palaeontology 4–6. These debates centre on the medial longitudinal arch 5,6 and have not considered whether stiffness is affected by the second, transverse tarsal arch of the human foot 16. Here we show that the transverse tarsal arch, acting through the inter-metatarsal tissues, is responsible for more than 40% of the longitudinal stiffness of the foot. The underlying principle resembles a floppy currency note that stiffens considerably when it curls transversally. We derive a dimensionless curvature parameter that governs the stiffness contribution of the transverse tarsal arch, demonstrate its predictive power using mechanical models of the foot and find its skeletal correlate in hominin feet. In the foot, the material properties of the inter-metatarsal tissues and the mobility of the metatarsals may additionally influence the longitudinal stiffness of the foot and thus the curvature–stiffness relationship of the transverse tarsal arch. By analysing fossils, we track the evolution of the curvature parameter among extinct hominins and show that a human-like transverse arch was a key step in the evolution of human bipedalism that predates the genus Homo by at least 1.5 million years. This renewed understanding of the foot may improve the clinical treatment of flatfoot disorders, the design of robotic feet and the study of foot function in locomotion.

AB - The stiff human foot enables an efficient push-off when walking or running, and was critical for the evolution of bipedalism 1–6. The uniquely arched morphology of the human midfoot is thought to stiffen it 5–9, whereas other primates have flat feet that bend severely in the midfoot 7,10,11. However, the relationship between midfoot geometry and stiffness remains debated in foot biomechanics 12,13, podiatry 14,15 and palaeontology 4–6. These debates centre on the medial longitudinal arch 5,6 and have not considered whether stiffness is affected by the second, transverse tarsal arch of the human foot 16. Here we show that the transverse tarsal arch, acting through the inter-metatarsal tissues, is responsible for more than 40% of the longitudinal stiffness of the foot. The underlying principle resembles a floppy currency note that stiffens considerably when it curls transversally. We derive a dimensionless curvature parameter that governs the stiffness contribution of the transverse tarsal arch, demonstrate its predictive power using mechanical models of the foot and find its skeletal correlate in hominin feet. In the foot, the material properties of the inter-metatarsal tissues and the mobility of the metatarsals may additionally influence the longitudinal stiffness of the foot and thus the curvature–stiffness relationship of the transverse tarsal arch. By analysing fossils, we track the evolution of the curvature parameter among extinct hominins and show that a human-like transverse arch was a key step in the evolution of human bipedalism that predates the genus Homo by at least 1.5 million years. This renewed understanding of the foot may improve the clinical treatment of flatfoot disorders, the design of robotic feet and the study of foot function in locomotion.

U2 - 10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

DO - 10.1038/s41586-020-2053-y

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 32103182

VL - 579

SP - 97

EP - 100

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 7797

ER -