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Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices

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Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices. / Mirsafaei, Mina; Jensen, Pia Bomholt; Ahmadpour, Mehrad; Lakhotiya, Harish; Hansen, John Lundsgaard; Julsgaard, Brian; Rubahn, Horst Günter; Lazzari, Rémi; Witkowski, Nadine; Balling, Peter; Madsen, Morten.

I: ACS Applied Energy Materials, Bind 3, Nr. 1, 01.2020, s. 253-259.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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Mirsafaei, M, Jensen, PB, Ahmadpour, M, Lakhotiya, H, Hansen, JL, Julsgaard, B, Rubahn, HG, Lazzari, R, Witkowski, N, Balling, P & Madsen, M 2020, 'Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices', ACS Applied Energy Materials, bind 3, nr. 1, s. 253-259. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsaem.9b01454

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Author

Mirsafaei, Mina ; Jensen, Pia Bomholt ; Ahmadpour, Mehrad ; Lakhotiya, Harish ; Hansen, John Lundsgaard ; Julsgaard, Brian ; Rubahn, Horst Günter ; Lazzari, Rémi ; Witkowski, Nadine ; Balling, Peter ; Madsen, Morten. / Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices. I: ACS Applied Energy Materials. 2020 ; Bind 3, Nr. 1. s. 253-259.

Bibtex

@article{4d77729dbd37443a8dfef0519d7d0458,
title = "Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices",
abstract = "Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has recently reached power conversion efficiencies of 17.3%, making it a green technology that not only offers short energy payback times and diverse photovoltaic integration schemes, but also can deliver competitive power outputs. OPVs typically employs electron selective contact layers made from low work function n-type metal oxide semiconductors, such as titanium oxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO), developed from a variety of deposition techniques. However, in the case of TiO2 interlayers, the appearance of unwanted s-shape characteristics has been reported extensively in the literature in the past, for a variety of different deposition methods used. It has been shown that the s-shape arises from negatively charged chemisorbed oxygen, and that it can be deactivated by UV light illumination, which, however, is hardly compatible with real-life OPV application. In this work, we introduce sputtered crystalline titanium oxide layers as efficient s-shape-free electron selective extraction layers in organic solar-cell devices. We demonstrate that the onset of crystallization takes place at substrate growth temperatures of approximately 100 °C for the TiOx thin films, and that the crystallization onset temperature correlates well with a strong increase in device performance and the removal of any s-shape characteristics. Optical, structural, compositional, and electronic energy-level characterizations of the TiOx layers are shown in the present work, and point to the formation of an oxide with a low surface-defect density, developed from the sputter-crystallization process. Importantly, well-functioning s-shape-free PTB7:PC70BM devices are demonstrated for TiOx growth temperatures of 155 °C.",
keywords = "metal oxide interlayers, organic photovoltaics, s-shape-free, sputter deposition, titanium oxide, TRANSPORT LAYER, POLYMER SOLAR-CELLS, FILM, STABILITY, ANATASE",
author = "Mina Mirsafaei and Jensen, {Pia Bomholt} and Mehrad Ahmadpour and Harish Lakhotiya and Hansen, {John Lundsgaard} and Brian Julsgaard and Rubahn, {Horst G{\"u}nter} and R{\'e}mi Lazzari and Nadine Witkowski and Peter Balling and Morten Madsen",
year = "2020",
month = jan,
doi = "10.1021/acsaem.9b01454",
language = "English",
volume = "3",
pages = "253--259",
journal = "ACS Applied Energy Materials",
issn = "2574-0962",
publisher = "AMER CHEMICAL SOC",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sputter-Deposited Titanium Oxide Layers as Efficient Electron Selective Contacts in Organic Photovoltaic Devices

AU - Mirsafaei, Mina

AU - Jensen, Pia Bomholt

AU - Ahmadpour, Mehrad

AU - Lakhotiya, Harish

AU - Hansen, John Lundsgaard

AU - Julsgaard, Brian

AU - Rubahn, Horst Günter

AU - Lazzari, Rémi

AU - Witkowski, Nadine

AU - Balling, Peter

AU - Madsen, Morten

PY - 2020/1

Y1 - 2020/1

N2 - Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has recently reached power conversion efficiencies of 17.3%, making it a green technology that not only offers short energy payback times and diverse photovoltaic integration schemes, but also can deliver competitive power outputs. OPVs typically employs electron selective contact layers made from low work function n-type metal oxide semiconductors, such as titanium oxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO), developed from a variety of deposition techniques. However, in the case of TiO2 interlayers, the appearance of unwanted s-shape characteristics has been reported extensively in the literature in the past, for a variety of different deposition methods used. It has been shown that the s-shape arises from negatively charged chemisorbed oxygen, and that it can be deactivated by UV light illumination, which, however, is hardly compatible with real-life OPV application. In this work, we introduce sputtered crystalline titanium oxide layers as efficient s-shape-free electron selective extraction layers in organic solar-cell devices. We demonstrate that the onset of crystallization takes place at substrate growth temperatures of approximately 100 °C for the TiOx thin films, and that the crystallization onset temperature correlates well with a strong increase in device performance and the removal of any s-shape characteristics. Optical, structural, compositional, and electronic energy-level characterizations of the TiOx layers are shown in the present work, and point to the formation of an oxide with a low surface-defect density, developed from the sputter-crystallization process. Importantly, well-functioning s-shape-free PTB7:PC70BM devices are demonstrated for TiOx growth temperatures of 155 °C.

AB - Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) has recently reached power conversion efficiencies of 17.3%, making it a green technology that not only offers short energy payback times and diverse photovoltaic integration schemes, but also can deliver competitive power outputs. OPVs typically employs electron selective contact layers made from low work function n-type metal oxide semiconductors, such as titanium oxide (TiO2) or zinc oxide (ZnO), developed from a variety of deposition techniques. However, in the case of TiO2 interlayers, the appearance of unwanted s-shape characteristics has been reported extensively in the literature in the past, for a variety of different deposition methods used. It has been shown that the s-shape arises from negatively charged chemisorbed oxygen, and that it can be deactivated by UV light illumination, which, however, is hardly compatible with real-life OPV application. In this work, we introduce sputtered crystalline titanium oxide layers as efficient s-shape-free electron selective extraction layers in organic solar-cell devices. We demonstrate that the onset of crystallization takes place at substrate growth temperatures of approximately 100 °C for the TiOx thin films, and that the crystallization onset temperature correlates well with a strong increase in device performance and the removal of any s-shape characteristics. Optical, structural, compositional, and electronic energy-level characterizations of the TiOx layers are shown in the present work, and point to the formation of an oxide with a low surface-defect density, developed from the sputter-crystallization process. Importantly, well-functioning s-shape-free PTB7:PC70BM devices are demonstrated for TiOx growth temperatures of 155 °C.

KW - metal oxide interlayers

KW - organic photovoltaics

KW - s-shape-free

KW - sputter deposition

KW - titanium oxide

KW - TRANSPORT LAYER

KW - POLYMER SOLAR-CELLS

KW - FILM

KW - STABILITY

KW - ANATASE

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85077441786&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/acsaem.9b01454

DO - 10.1021/acsaem.9b01454

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85077441786

VL - 3

SP - 253

EP - 259

JO - ACS Applied Energy Materials

JF - ACS Applied Energy Materials

SN - 2574-0962

IS - 1

ER -