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Sowerby’s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales

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Sowerby’s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales. / Visser, Fleur; Oudejans, Machiel G.; Keller, Onno A. et al.

I: Journal of Experimental Biology, Bind 255, Nr. 9, jeb243728, 05.2022.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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Visser F, Oudejans MG, Keller OA, Madsen PT, Johnson M. Sowerby’s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales. Journal of Experimental Biology. 2022 maj;255(9):jeb243728. doi: 10.1242/jeb.243728

Author

Visser, Fleur ; Oudejans, Machiel G. ; Keller, Onno A. et al. / Sowerby’s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales. I: Journal of Experimental Biology. 2022 ; Bind 255, Nr. 9.

Bibtex

@article{4fe0e5cdb2f84bdc86151ca28968e3e3,
title = "Sowerby{\textquoteright}s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales",
abstract = "Closely related species are expected to diverge in foraging strategy, reflecting the evolutionary drive to optimize foraging performance. The most speciose cetacean genus, Mesoplodon, comprises beaked whales with little diversity in external morphology or diet, and overlapping distributions. Moreover, the few studied species of beaked whales (Ziphiidae) show very similar foraging styles with slow, energy-conserving movement during long, deep foraging dives. This raises the question of what factors drive their speciation. Using data from animal-attached tags and aerial imagery, we tested the hypothesis that two similar-sized mesoplodonts, Sowerby{\textquoteright}s (Mesoplodon bidens) and Blainville{\textquoteright}s (Mesoplodon densirostris) beaked whales, exploit a similar low-energy niche. We show that, compared with the low-energy strategist Blainville{\textquoteright}s beaked whale, Sowerby{\textquoteright}s beaked whale lives in the fast lane. While targeting a similar mesopelagic/bathypelagic foraging zone, they consistently swim and hunt faster, perform shorter deep dives, and echolocate at a faster rate with higher frequency clicks. Further, extensive near-surface travel between deep dives challenges the interpretation of beaked whale shallow inter-foraging dives as a management strategy for decompression sickness. The distinctively higher frequency echolocation clicks do not hold apparent foraging benefits. Instead, we argue that a high-speed foraging style influences dive duration and echolocation behaviour, enabling access to a distinct prey population. Our results demonstrate that beaked whales exploit a broader diversity of deep-sea foraging and energetic niches than hitherto suspected. The marked deviation of Sowerby{\textquoteright}s beaked whales from the typical ziphiid foraging strategy has potential implications for their response to anthropogenic sounds, which appears to be strongly behaviourally driven in other ziphiids.",
keywords = "Deep-sea foraging ecology, Echolocation, Mesoplodon bidens, Niche differentiation, Pace-of-life syndrome, Ziphiidae",
author = "Fleur Visser and Oudejans, {Machiel G.} and Keller, {Onno A.} and Madsen, {Peter T.} and Mark Johnson",
year = "2022",
month = may,
doi = "10.1242/jeb.243728",
language = "English",
volume = "255",
journal = "The Journal of Experimental Biology",
issn = "0022-0949",
publisher = "The/Company of Biologists Ltd.",
number = "9",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Sowerby’s beaked whale biosonar and movement strategy indicate deep-sea foraging niche differentiation in mesoplodont whales

AU - Visser, Fleur

AU - Oudejans, Machiel G.

AU - Keller, Onno A.

AU - Madsen, Peter T.

AU - Johnson, Mark

PY - 2022/5

Y1 - 2022/5

N2 - Closely related species are expected to diverge in foraging strategy, reflecting the evolutionary drive to optimize foraging performance. The most speciose cetacean genus, Mesoplodon, comprises beaked whales with little diversity in external morphology or diet, and overlapping distributions. Moreover, the few studied species of beaked whales (Ziphiidae) show very similar foraging styles with slow, energy-conserving movement during long, deep foraging dives. This raises the question of what factors drive their speciation. Using data from animal-attached tags and aerial imagery, we tested the hypothesis that two similar-sized mesoplodonts, Sowerby’s (Mesoplodon bidens) and Blainville’s (Mesoplodon densirostris) beaked whales, exploit a similar low-energy niche. We show that, compared with the low-energy strategist Blainville’s beaked whale, Sowerby’s beaked whale lives in the fast lane. While targeting a similar mesopelagic/bathypelagic foraging zone, they consistently swim and hunt faster, perform shorter deep dives, and echolocate at a faster rate with higher frequency clicks. Further, extensive near-surface travel between deep dives challenges the interpretation of beaked whale shallow inter-foraging dives as a management strategy for decompression sickness. The distinctively higher frequency echolocation clicks do not hold apparent foraging benefits. Instead, we argue that a high-speed foraging style influences dive duration and echolocation behaviour, enabling access to a distinct prey population. Our results demonstrate that beaked whales exploit a broader diversity of deep-sea foraging and energetic niches than hitherto suspected. The marked deviation of Sowerby’s beaked whales from the typical ziphiid foraging strategy has potential implications for their response to anthropogenic sounds, which appears to be strongly behaviourally driven in other ziphiids.

AB - Closely related species are expected to diverge in foraging strategy, reflecting the evolutionary drive to optimize foraging performance. The most speciose cetacean genus, Mesoplodon, comprises beaked whales with little diversity in external morphology or diet, and overlapping distributions. Moreover, the few studied species of beaked whales (Ziphiidae) show very similar foraging styles with slow, energy-conserving movement during long, deep foraging dives. This raises the question of what factors drive their speciation. Using data from animal-attached tags and aerial imagery, we tested the hypothesis that two similar-sized mesoplodonts, Sowerby’s (Mesoplodon bidens) and Blainville’s (Mesoplodon densirostris) beaked whales, exploit a similar low-energy niche. We show that, compared with the low-energy strategist Blainville’s beaked whale, Sowerby’s beaked whale lives in the fast lane. While targeting a similar mesopelagic/bathypelagic foraging zone, they consistently swim and hunt faster, perform shorter deep dives, and echolocate at a faster rate with higher frequency clicks. Further, extensive near-surface travel between deep dives challenges the interpretation of beaked whale shallow inter-foraging dives as a management strategy for decompression sickness. The distinctively higher frequency echolocation clicks do not hold apparent foraging benefits. Instead, we argue that a high-speed foraging style influences dive duration and echolocation behaviour, enabling access to a distinct prey population. Our results demonstrate that beaked whales exploit a broader diversity of deep-sea foraging and energetic niches than hitherto suspected. The marked deviation of Sowerby’s beaked whales from the typical ziphiid foraging strategy has potential implications for their response to anthropogenic sounds, which appears to be strongly behaviourally driven in other ziphiids.

KW - Deep-sea foraging ecology

KW - Echolocation

KW - Mesoplodon bidens

KW - Niche differentiation

KW - Pace-of-life syndrome

KW - Ziphiidae

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85130638390&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1242/jeb.243728

DO - 10.1242/jeb.243728

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 35417009

AN - SCOPUS:85130638390

VL - 255

JO - The Journal of Experimental Biology

JF - The Journal of Experimental Biology

SN - 0022-0949

IS - 9

M1 - jeb243728

ER -