Solar insolation in springtime influences age of onset of bipolar I disorder

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  • Markus Bauer, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • Tasha Glenn, ChronoRecord Association, Fullerton, CA, USA.
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  • M Alda, Dalhousie University
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  • M A Aleksandrovich, Soviet Psychoneurological Hospital, Urai, Russia.
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  • O A Andreassen, NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
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  • Elias Angelopoulos, Department of Psychiatry, Medical School, Eginition Hospital, National and Capodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.
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  • Raffaella Ardau, Section of Neurosciences and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
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  • Y Ayhan, Department of Psychiatry, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
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  • C Baethge, University of Cologne
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  • S R Bharathram, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029, India.
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  • R Bauer, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • Bernard T Baune, Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia.
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  • C Becerra-Palars, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, Mexico.
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  • F Bellivier, Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, FondaMental Foundation, INSERM UMR-S1144, Denis Diderot University, René Descartes University, Paris, France.
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  • Robert H Belmaker, l Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences , Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva Mental Health Center , Beer Sheva , Israel.
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  • Michael Berk, Department of Psychiatry, Orygen, the National Centre for Excellence in Youth Mental Health, the Centre for Youth Mental Health and the Florey Institute for Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Vic., Australia.
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  • Yuly Bersudsky, l Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences , Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva Mental Health Center , Beer Sheva , Israel.
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  • Ş Bicakci, Department of Psychiatry, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Ankara, Turkey.
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  • H Birabwa-Oketcho, Butabika Hospital, Kampala, Uganda.
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  • Thomas D Bjella, NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
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  • Letizia Bossini, Department of Molecular Medicine and Department of Mental Health (DAI), University of Siena and University of Siena Medical Center (AOUS), Siena, Italy.
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  • J. Cabrera, Mood Disorders Clinic, Dr. Jose Horwitz Psychiatric Institute, Santiago de Chile, Chile.
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  • Eric Yat Wo Cheung, Department of General Adult Psychiatry, Castle Peak Hospital, Tuen Mun, Hong Kong.
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  • Maria Del Zompo, Section of Neurosciences and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
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  • Richard S. Dodd, University of Melbourne, Australia
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  • M Donix, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • B Etain, Psychiatry and Addiction Medicine, Assistance Publique - Hôpitaux de Paris, FondaMental Foundation, INSERM UMR-S1144, Denis Diderot University, René Descartes University, Paris, France.
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  • A Fagiolini, Department of Molecular Medicine and Department of Mental Health (DAI), University of Siena and University of Siena Medical Center (AOUS), Siena, Italy.
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  • Kostas N Fountoulakis, 3rd Department of Psychiatry, Division of Neurosciences, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece.
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  • Mark A Frye, Department of Psychiatry & Psychology, Mayo Clinic Depression Center, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
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  • Ana González-Pinto, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Alava, University of the Basque Country, CIBERSAM, Vitoria, Spain.
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  • J F Gottlieb
  • P Grof, 1] The International Group for the Study of Lithium-Treated Patients (IGSLI), Berlin, Germany [2] Mood Disorders Center of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K1G 4G3 [3] Department of Psychiatry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R8.
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  • H. Harima, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.
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  • C Henry, AP-HP, Hopitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor and INSERM U955 (IMRB) and Université Paris Est and Institut Pasteur, Unité Perception et Mémoire, Paris, France.
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  • Erkki T Isometsä, National Institute for Health and Welfare
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  • S Janno, Department of Psychiatry, University of Tartu, Tartu, Estonia.
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  • F Kapczinski, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
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  • M Kardell, University of Gothenburg
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  • S Khaldi, Private practice, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • Sebastian Kliwicki, Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
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  • B. König, BIPOLAR Zentrum Wiener Neustadt, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
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  • T L Kot, Khanty-Mansiysk Clinical Psychoneurological Hospital, Khanty-Mansiysk, Russia.
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  • R Krogh
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  • M Kunz, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
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  • Beny Lafer, Bipolar Disorder Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
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  • M Landén, Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
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  • E R Larsen
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  • Ute Lewitzka, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • R W Licht
  • Carlos Lopez-Jaramillo, Mood Disorders Program, Hospital Universitario San Vicente Fundación, Research Group in Psychiatry, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia.
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  • Glenda M Macqueen, Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.
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  • Mirko Manchia, Section of Psychiatry, Department of Medical Science and Public Health, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
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  • Wendy Marsh, Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts, Worcester, MA, USA.
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  • Mónica Martinez-Cengotitabengoa, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Alava, University of the Basque Country, CIBERSAM, Vitoria, Spain.
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  • I. Melle, NORMENT - K.G. Jebsen Centre for Psychosis Research, Division of Mental Health and Addiction, Oslo University Hospital & Institute of Clinical Medicine, Oslo, Norway.
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  • F Meza-Urzúa, National Institute of Psychiatry Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Mexico City, Mexico.
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  • M Yee Ming, Department of General Psychiatry, Mood Disorders Unit, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore City, Singapore.
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  • Scott Monteith, ah Michigan State University College of Human Medicine , Traverse City Campus , Traverse City , MI , USA.
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  • Gunnar Morken, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
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  • E Mosca, Section of Neurosciences and Clinical Pharmacology, Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy.
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  • Rodrigo Munoz, Department of Psychiatry, University of California San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA.
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  • S V Mythri, Asha Bipolar Clinic, Asha Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
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  • F Nacef, Razi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • R K Nadella, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029, India.
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  • Fabiano G Nery, Bipolar Disorder Research Program, Department of Psychiatry, University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.
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  • R E Nielsen, Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry, Aalborg, Denmark., Aalborg Universitet
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  • M C O'Donovan, Dalhousie University
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  • A Omrani, Tunisian Bipolar Forum, Érable Médical Cabinet 324, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • Yamima Osher, l Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Health Sciences , Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva Mental Health Center , Beer Sheva , Israel.
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  • H Østermark Sørensen, Unit for Psychiatric Research, Aalborg University Hospital, Psychiatry, Aalborg, Denmark.
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  • U Ouali, Razi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • Y Pica Ruiz, Hospital "Ángeles del Pedregal", Mexico City, Mexico.
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  • M Pilhatsch, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • Roxanna Martinez-Pinna, Lucio Bini Mood Disorder Center, Cagliari, Italy.
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  • F D R da Ponte, Department of Psychiatry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Brazil.
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  • Danilo Quiroz, Deparment of Psychiatry, Diego Portales University, Santiago, Chile.
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  • Raj Ramesar, UCT/MRC Human Genetics Research Unit, Division of Human Genetics, Institute of Infectious Disease and Molecular Medicine, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
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  • Natalie Rasgon, Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Stanford School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA.
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  • M S Reddy, Asha Bipolar Clinic, Asha Hospital, Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
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  • A Reif, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
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  • P. Ritter, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • Janusz K Rybakowski, Department of Adult Psychiatry, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznan, Poland.
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  • Kemal Sagduyu, Department of Psychiatry, University of Missouri Kansas City, School of Medicine, Kansas City, MO, USA.
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  • Ângela M Scippa, ao Department of Neuroscience and Mental Health , Federal University of Bahia , Salvador , Brazil.
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  • W E Severus, Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Carl Gustav Carus, Technische Universität, Dresden, Germany.
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  • Christian Simhandl, BIPOLAR Zentrum Wiener Neustadt, Wiener Neustadt, Austria.
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  • D. J. Stein, Department of Psychiatry, MRC Unit on Risk & Resilience in Mental Disorders, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
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  • Sergio Strejilevich, Bipolar Disorder Program, Neuroscience Institute, Favaloro University, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
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  • Mythily Subramaniam, Research Division, Institute of Mental Health, Singapore City, Singapore.
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  • Ahmad Hatim Sulaiman, Department of Psychological Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
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  • Kirsi Suominen, City of Helsinki, Department of Social Services and Health Care, Psychiatry, Helsinki, Finland.
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  • Hiromi Tagata, Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Metropolitan Matsuzawa Hospital, Setagaya, Tokyo, Japan.
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  • Yoshitaka Tatebayashi, Schizophrenia & Affective Disorders Research Project, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Seatagaya, Tokyo, Japan.
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  • Leonardo Tondo, Mood Disorder Lucio Bini Centers, Cagliari e Roma, Italy.
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  • Carla Torrent, Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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  • A E Vaaler, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
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  • J Veeh, Department of Psychiatry, Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, University Hospital Frankfurt, Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main, Germany.
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  • E. Vieta, Clinical Institute of Neuroscience, Hospital Clinic, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, CIBERSAM, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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  • Biju Viswanath, Department of Psychiatry, NIMHANS, Bangalore 560029, India.
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  • M Yoldi-Negrete, Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología - Instituto Nacional de Psiquiatría Ramón de la Fuente Muñiz, Ciudad de México, Mexico.
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  • Mark Zetin, Department of Psychology, Chapman University, Orange, CA, USA.
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  • Y Zgueb, Razi Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tunis-El Manar, Tunis, Tunisia.
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  • Peter C Whybrow, Department of Psychiatry and Biobehavioral Sciences, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, University of California Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, CA, USA.

OBJECTIVE: To confirm prior findings that the larger the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation in springtime, the younger the age of onset of bipolar disorder.

METHOD: Data were collected from 5536 patients at 50 sites in 32 countries on six continents. Onset occurred at 456 locations in 57 countries. Variables included solar insolation, birth-cohort, family history, polarity of first episode and country physician density.

RESULTS: There was a significant, inverse association between the maximum monthly increase in solar insolation at the onset location, and the age of onset. This effect was reduced in those without a family history of mood disorders and with a first episode of mania rather than depression. The maximum monthly increase occurred in springtime. The youngest birth-cohort had the youngest age of onset. All prior relationships were confirmed using both the entire sample, and only the youngest birth-cohort (all estimated coefficients P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: A large increase in springtime solar insolation may impact the onset of bipolar disorder, especially with a family history of mood disorders. Recent societal changes that affect light exposure (LED lighting, mobile devices backlit with LEDs) may influence adaptability to a springtime circadian challenge.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftActa Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Vol/bind136
Nummer6
Sider (fra-til)1-12
ISSN0001-690X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2017

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