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Simultaneous measurements of aerosol size distributions at three sites in the European high Arctic

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  • Manuel Dall'Osto
  • ,
  • David C. S. Beddows
  • ,
  • Peter Tunved, Stockholm University, Sverige
  • Roy M. Harrison, University of Birmingham, King Abdulaziz Univ, King Abdulaziz University, Ctr Excellence Environm Studies, Dept Environm Sci, Storbritannien
  • Angelo Lupi
  • ,
  • Vito Vitale
  • ,
  • Silvia Becagli, University of Florence, Florence, Italien
  • Rita Traversi, University of Florence, Florence
  • ,
  • Ki-Tae Park
  • ,
  • Young Jun Yoon
  • ,
  • Andreas Massling
  • Henrik Skov
  • Robert Lange
  • ,
  • Johan Ström, Stockholm University, Sverige
  • Radovan Krejci, Stockholm University, Sverige

Aerosols are an integral part of the Arctic climate system due to their direct interaction with radiation and indirect interaction through cloud formation. Understanding aerosol size distributions and their dynamics is crucial for the ability to predict these climate relevant effects. When of favourable size and composition, both long-rangetransported-and locally formed particles-may serve as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Small changes of composition or size may have a large impact on the low CCN concentrations currently characteristic of the Arctic environment. We present a cluster analysis of particle size distributions (PSDs; size range 8-500 nm) simultaneously collected from three high Arctic sites during a 3-year period (2013-2015). Two sites are located in the Svalbard archipelago: Zeppelin research station (ZEP; 474 m above ground) and the nearby Gruvebadet Observatory (GRU; about 2 km distance from Zeppelin, 67 m above ground). The third site (Villum Research Station at Station Nord, VRS; 30 m above ground) is 600 km west-northwest of Zeppelin, at the tip of northeastern Greenland. The GRU site is included in an inter-site comparison for the first time. K-means cluster analysis provided eight specific aerosol categories, further combined into broad PSD classes with similar characteristics, namely pristine low concentrations (12 %-14 % occurrence), new particle formation (16 %-32 %), Aitken (21 %-35 %) and accumulation (20 %-50 %). Confined for longer time periods by consolidated pack sea ice regions, the Greenland site GRU shows PSDs with lower ultrafine-mode aerosol concentrations during summer but higher accumulation-mode aerosol concentrations during winter, relative to the Svalbard sites. By association with chemical composition and cloud condensation nuclei properties, further conclusions can be derived. Three distinct types of accumulation-mode aerosol are observed during winter months. These are associated with sea spray (largest detectable sizes, > 400 nm), Arctic haze (main mode at 150 nm) and aged accumulation-mode (main mode at 220 nm) aerosols. In contrast, locally produced particles, most likely of marine biogenic origin, exhibit size distributions dominated by the nucleation and Aitken mode during summer months. The obtained data and analysis point towards future studies, including apportioning the relative contribution of primary and secondary aerosol formation pro cesses and elucidating anthropogenic aerosol dynamics and transport and removal processes across the Greenland Sea. In order to address important research questions in the Arctic on scales beyond a singular station or measurement events, it is imperative to continue strengthening international scientific cooperation.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftAtmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Vol/bind19
Nummer11
Sider (fra-til)7377-7395
Antal sider19
ISSN1680-7316
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 4 jun. 2019

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