Serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) predicts outcome after intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage

Tua Gyldenholm, Christine L. Hvas, Anne Mette Hvas, Claus V.B. Hviid*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage are critical conditions with a high mortality, and the outcome for the individual patient is notoriously difficult to predict. Biomarkers that reflect disease severity and predict outcome are therefore warranted. METHODS: Blood samples from 40 patients with intracerebral, 46 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and 70 healthy individuals were collected. Levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and neuroglobin were measured by ultra-sensitive single molecule array and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Clinical information including mortality and functional outcome was recorded. RESULTS: Blood levels of GFAP and neuroglobin in intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients were significantly elevated when compared to healthy individuals (all p < 0.0001). GFAP levels were significantly higher in patients dying or with poor functional outcome than in healthy individuals (all p ≤ 0.01). GFAP levels separated survivors from non-survivors with an area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) = 0.78 (confidence interval (CI) 0.59-0.98) for intracerebral hemorrhage and 0.82 (CI 0.69-0.94) for subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. The Akaike and Bayesian information criteria (AIC/BIC) for mortality/poor outcome prediction improved when combining GFAP levels with hematoma volume (p = 0.04/p < 0.01), National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p = 0.09/p < 0.01), Hunt-Hess (p < 0.05/p = 0.21), or Fischer score (p < 0.05/p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Elevated GFAP levels at admission to hospital predicted mortality and poor outcome in our cohort of intracerebral and subarachnoid hemorrhage patients. Neuroglobin levels did not provide additional information. Combining GFAP measurements with clinical disease severity scores increased outcome prediction precision. This may suggest that GFAP measurement could improve prognostication in patients with intracerebral or subarachnoid hemorrhage. REGISTRATION: This sub-trial was not registered.

TidsskriftNeurological Sciences
Sider (fra-til)6011-6019
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2022


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