SARS-CoV-2 vaccine-induced antibodies protect against Omicron breakthrough infection

E. Baerends, Astrid K. Hvidt*, Ole S. Søgaard, Nina B. Stærke, S. D. Andersen, A. K. Juhl, Lisa L. Dietz, Signe R. Andreasen, C. Erikstrup, L. Østergaard, M. Tolstrup, on behalf of the ENFORCE Study Group

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Abstract

SARS-CoV-2 Omicron quickly spread globally, also in regions with high vaccination coverage, emphasizing the importance of exploring the immunological requirements for protection against Omicron breakthrough infection. The test-negative matched case-control study (N = 964) characterized Omicron breakthrough infections in triple-vaccinated individuals from the ENFORCE cohort. Within 60 days before a PCR test spike-specific IgG levels were significantly lower in cases compared to controls (GMR [95% CI] for BA.2: 0.83 [0.73–0.95], p = 0.006). Multivariable logistic regression showed significant associations between high antibody levels and lower odds of infection (aOR [95% CI] for BA.2 spike-specific IgG: 0.65 [0.48–0.88], p = 0.006 and BA.2 ACE2-blocking antibodies: 0.46 [0.30–0.69], p = 0.0002). A sex-stratified analysis showed more pronounced associations for females than males. High levels of vaccine-induced antibodies provide partial protection against Omicron breakthrough infections. This is important knowledge to further characterize a threshold for protection against new variants and to estimate the necessity and timing of booster vaccination.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer107621
TidsskriftiScience
Vol/bind26
Nummer9
Antal sider14
ISSN2589-0042
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2023

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