Institut for Statskundskab

Red Tape: Developing and Validating a New Job-Centered Measure

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review



  • Nina van Loon
  • ,
  • Peter M. Leisink, Utrecht Universitet, Holland
  • Eva Knies, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Holland
  • Gene A. Brewer, The University of Georgia, USA

Red tape studies typically focus on burdensome rules that have negative effects on organizations, as perceived by managers. The one-item general red tape scale is representative of this approach. However, scholars have called for improved measures that address the scale's shortcomings. This article introduces a new measurement scale that features (1) red tape as a two-dimensional construct that includes compliance burden and lack of functionality and (2) a job-centered approach that measures red tape as experienced by employees in their jobs rather than more generally in the organization. A set of survey questions derived from interviews with government employees was validated using data from 1,203 government employees. The findings indicate that the two-dimensional job-centered red tape scale is reliable and valid. The authors conclude that this measure can improve research and be used by managers for a "quick scan" to detect the location and severity of red tape.

TidsskriftPublic Administration Review
Sider (fra-til)662-673
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - 2016

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