Recovery period of Folsomia candida influence the impact of nonylphenol and phenanthrene on the tolerance of drought and heat shock

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Soil organisms are exposed to natural and anthropogenic stressors, such as xenobiotics. However, to simplify and make laboratory experiments easily reproducible, natural stressors are often excluded from ecotoxicological studies and risk assessment. This might underestimate the effect of chemicals, since synergistic interactions between chemicals and natural stressors might occur, creating a more severe impact than expected. Several studies have addressed simultaneous exposure to natural and chemical stressors, but very little is known of about the persistence of these interactions during recovery. Here, we examined if recovery after chemical stress exposure was important for the ability of springtails (Folsomia candida) to tolerate subsequent drought- and heat stress. Nonylphenol (NP) and phenanthrene (PHE) was tested and their isolated toxicity resulted in LC50 values of 206 mg NP kg−1 dry soil and 109 mg PHE kg−1 dry soil in a 7-day test. Elimination of NP and PHE was rapid and only trace amounts remained in springtail tissues after 3–7 days of recovery. Isolated studies of drought and heat shock on Folsomia candida resulted in a lethal effect for 50% of the animals (LRH50) at a relative humidity (RH) of 97.9%, and 190 min at 34 °C was shown to be lethal for 50% of the test species (LT50). The results showed, as expected, significant synergistic interactions between the effects of the chemicals and the effects of drought and heat stress. The negative effects of NP and PHE on the drought tolerance disappeared within 7 days post exposure. Springtails exposed to PHE also recovered their heat tolerance within 7 days post exposure, while NP exposed animals had not fully recovered their heat tolerance 14 days after exposure. Overall, a recovery period post chemical exposure was found to be very important for springtails in order to cope with natural stressors like heat and drought. Exposure to hazardous substances phenanthrene and nonylphenol is shown to worsen the sensitivity of springtails to subsequent heat and drought stress, but a relative short recovery period of up to two weeks removed synergistic interactions between chemical and climatic stress, most likely due to an almost completely elimination of the chemicals within a week.

TidsskriftEnvironmental Pollution
StatusUdgivet - 1 nov. 2019

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