Recent global changes have decoupled species richness from specialization patterns in North American birds

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Recent global changes have decoupled species richness from specialization patterns in North American birds. / Mimet, Anne; Buitenwerf, Robert; Sandel, Brody; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Normand, Signe.

I: Global Ecology and Biogeography, 08.2019.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

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@article{096464e27dee4157a9e8c26f5178fdbd,
title = "Recent global changes have decoupled species richness from specialization patterns in North American birds",
abstract = "Aim Theory suggests that increasing productivity and climate stability towards the tropics favours specialization, thus contributing to the latitudinal richness gradient. A positive relationship between species richness and specialization should therefore emerge as a fundamental biogeographical pattern. However, land-use and climate changes disproportionally increase the local extirpation risk for specialists, potentially weakening the relationship between richness and specialization. Here, we quantify empirically the richness-specialization prediction and test how 50 years of climate and land-use change has affected the richness-specialization relationship. Location USA. Time period 1966-2015. Major taxa studied Birds. Methods We used the North American Breeding Bird Survey to quantify bird community richness and specialization to habitat and climate. We (a) quantify temporal change in the slope of the richness-specialization relationship, using a generalized mixed model; (b) assess how this change translates spatially, using generalized additive models; and (c) attribute spatio-temporal change in the richness-specialization relationship to land use, climate and topographic drivers. Results We found evidence for a positive but weak richness-specialization relationship in bird communities that greatly weakened over time. Given that specialization was not the main driver of richness, this relationship did not translate spatially into a linear spatial covariation between richness and specialization. Instead, the spatial covariation in richness and specialization followed a unimodal pattern, the peak of which shifted towards less specialized communities over time. These temporal changes were associated with precipitation change, decreasing temperature stability and land use. Main conclusions Recent climate and land-use changes have induced two contrasting types of community responses. In human-dominated areas, the decoupling of richness and specialization drove a general trend for biotic homogenization. In areas of low human impact experiencing increasing climate harshness, specialization increased, whereas richness decreased. Our results offer new support for specialization as a key driver of macroecological diversity patterns and show that global changes are weakening this fundamental macroecological pattern.",
keywords = "anthropocene, biotic homogenization, birds, climate change, community metrics, land use, latitudinal richness gradient, latitudinal specialization gradient, niche breadth, niche partitioning, CLIMATE-CHANGE, BIOTIC HOMOGENIZATION, BIODIVERSITY CHANGE, RELATIVE IMPORTANCE, DIVERSITY, HETEROGENEITY, CONSEQUENCES, COMMUNITY, GENERALISTS, GRADIENTS",
author = "Anne Mimet and Robert Buitenwerf and Brody Sandel and Jens-Christian Svenning and Signe Normand",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
doi = "10.1111/geb.12978",
language = "English",
journal = "Global Ecology and Biogeography",
issn = "1466-822X",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recent global changes have decoupled species richness from specialization patterns in North American birds

AU - Mimet, Anne

AU - Buitenwerf, Robert

AU - Sandel, Brody

AU - Svenning, Jens-Christian

AU - Normand, Signe

PY - 2019/8

Y1 - 2019/8

N2 - Aim Theory suggests that increasing productivity and climate stability towards the tropics favours specialization, thus contributing to the latitudinal richness gradient. A positive relationship between species richness and specialization should therefore emerge as a fundamental biogeographical pattern. However, land-use and climate changes disproportionally increase the local extirpation risk for specialists, potentially weakening the relationship between richness and specialization. Here, we quantify empirically the richness-specialization prediction and test how 50 years of climate and land-use change has affected the richness-specialization relationship. Location USA. Time period 1966-2015. Major taxa studied Birds. Methods We used the North American Breeding Bird Survey to quantify bird community richness and specialization to habitat and climate. We (a) quantify temporal change in the slope of the richness-specialization relationship, using a generalized mixed model; (b) assess how this change translates spatially, using generalized additive models; and (c) attribute spatio-temporal change in the richness-specialization relationship to land use, climate and topographic drivers. Results We found evidence for a positive but weak richness-specialization relationship in bird communities that greatly weakened over time. Given that specialization was not the main driver of richness, this relationship did not translate spatially into a linear spatial covariation between richness and specialization. Instead, the spatial covariation in richness and specialization followed a unimodal pattern, the peak of which shifted towards less specialized communities over time. These temporal changes were associated with precipitation change, decreasing temperature stability and land use. Main conclusions Recent climate and land-use changes have induced two contrasting types of community responses. In human-dominated areas, the decoupling of richness and specialization drove a general trend for biotic homogenization. In areas of low human impact experiencing increasing climate harshness, specialization increased, whereas richness decreased. Our results offer new support for specialization as a key driver of macroecological diversity patterns and show that global changes are weakening this fundamental macroecological pattern.

AB - Aim Theory suggests that increasing productivity and climate stability towards the tropics favours specialization, thus contributing to the latitudinal richness gradient. A positive relationship between species richness and specialization should therefore emerge as a fundamental biogeographical pattern. However, land-use and climate changes disproportionally increase the local extirpation risk for specialists, potentially weakening the relationship between richness and specialization. Here, we quantify empirically the richness-specialization prediction and test how 50 years of climate and land-use change has affected the richness-specialization relationship. Location USA. Time period 1966-2015. Major taxa studied Birds. Methods We used the North American Breeding Bird Survey to quantify bird community richness and specialization to habitat and climate. We (a) quantify temporal change in the slope of the richness-specialization relationship, using a generalized mixed model; (b) assess how this change translates spatially, using generalized additive models; and (c) attribute spatio-temporal change in the richness-specialization relationship to land use, climate and topographic drivers. Results We found evidence for a positive but weak richness-specialization relationship in bird communities that greatly weakened over time. Given that specialization was not the main driver of richness, this relationship did not translate spatially into a linear spatial covariation between richness and specialization. Instead, the spatial covariation in richness and specialization followed a unimodal pattern, the peak of which shifted towards less specialized communities over time. These temporal changes were associated with precipitation change, decreasing temperature stability and land use. Main conclusions Recent climate and land-use changes have induced two contrasting types of community responses. In human-dominated areas, the decoupling of richness and specialization drove a general trend for biotic homogenization. In areas of low human impact experiencing increasing climate harshness, specialization increased, whereas richness decreased. Our results offer new support for specialization as a key driver of macroecological diversity patterns and show that global changes are weakening this fundamental macroecological pattern.

KW - anthropocene

KW - biotic homogenization

KW - birds

KW - climate change

KW - community metrics

KW - land use

KW - latitudinal richness gradient

KW - latitudinal specialization gradient

KW - niche breadth

KW - niche partitioning

KW - CLIMATE-CHANGE

KW - BIOTIC HOMOGENIZATION

KW - BIODIVERSITY CHANGE

KW - RELATIVE IMPORTANCE

KW - DIVERSITY

KW - HETEROGENEITY

KW - CONSEQUENCES

KW - COMMUNITY

KW - GENERALISTS

KW - GRADIENTS

U2 - 10.1111/geb.12978

DO - 10.1111/geb.12978

M3 - Journal article

JO - Global Ecology and Biogeography

JF - Global Ecology and Biogeography

SN - 1466-822X

ER -