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Rapid Determination of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) in Harbour Porpoise Liver Tissue by HybridSPE®–UPLC®–MS/MS

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  • Simone Trimmel, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Kristine Vike-Jonas, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Susana V. Gonzalez, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Tomasz Maciej Ciesielski, Norwegian University of Science and Technology
  • ,
  • Ulf Lindstrøm, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, Fram Centre
  • ,
  • Bjørn Munro Jenssen
  • Alexandros G. Asimakopoulos, Norwegian University of Science and Technology

A rapid hybrid solid phase extraction (HybridSPE®) protocol tailored to ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC®–ESI–MS/MS) analysis was developed for the determination of 15 per-and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in liver tissue from harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena). The HybridSPE® technique has been applied in trace concentration bioanalysis, but it was mainly used for liquid biological media until now. In this study, the protocol was applied on tissue matrix, and it demonstrated acceptable absolute recoveries (%) ranging from 44.4 to 89.4%. The chromatographic separation was carried out using a gradient elution program with a total run time of 4 min. The inter-day method precision ranged from 2.15 to 15.4%, and the method limits of detection (LODs) ranged from 0.003 to 0.30 ng/g wet weight (w.w.). A total of 20 liver samples were analyzed to demonstrate the applicability of the developed method in liver tissue from a wildlife species.

StatusUdgivet - aug. 2021

Bibliografisk note

Funding Information:
Funding: This project was supported financially by the Department of Chemistry at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. Collection of the by-caught animals was organized by the Institute of Marine Research and funded by the FRAM center flagship project “The role of harbour porpoise in Norwegian coastal marine communities”. All sample chemical analysis was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, NTNU.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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