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Protein-Induced Fluorescence Enhancement and Quenching in a Homogeneous DNA-Based Assay for Rapid Detection of Small-Molecule Drugs in Human Plasma

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Homogeneous assays for determining the concentration of small molecules in biological fluids are of importance for monitoring blood levels of critical drugs in patients. We have developed a strand displacement competition assay for the drugs dabigatran, methotrexate, and linezolid, which allows detection and determination of the concentration of the drugs in plasma; however, a surprising kinetic behavior of the assay was observed with an initial rapid change in apparent FRET values. We found that protein-induced fluorescent enhancement or quenching (PIFE/Q) caused the initial change in fluorescence within the first minute after addition of protein, which could be exploited to construct assays for concentration determination within minutes in the low nanomolar range in plasma. A kinetic model for the assay was established, and when taking the new finding into account, the in silico simulations were in good agreement with the experimentally observed results. Utilizing these findings, a simpler assay was constructed for detection of dabigatran, which allowed for detection within minutes without any time dependencies.

TidsskriftACS Sensors
Sider (fra-til)856-865
Antal sider10
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2022

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