Pre-Clinical Models to Study Human Prostate Cancer

Martin K. Thomsen*, Morten Busk

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisReviewForskningpeer review

Abstract

Prostate cancer is a common cancer among men and typically progresses slowly for several decades before becoming aggressive and spreading to other organs, leaving few treatment options. While large animals have been studied, the dog’s prostate is anatomically similar to humans and has been used to study spontaneous prostate cancer. However, most research currently focuses on the mouse as a model organism due to the ability to genetically modify their prostatic tissues for molecular analysis. One milestone in this research was the identification of the prostate-specific promoter Probasin, which allowed for the prostate-specific expression of transgenes. This has led to the generation of mice with aggressive prostatic tumors through overexpression of the SV40 oncogene. The Probasin promoter is also used to drive Cre expression and has allowed researchers to generate prostate-specific loss-of-function studies. Another landmark moment in the process of modeling prostate cancer in mice was the orthoptic delivery of viral particles. This technology allows the selective overexpression of oncogenes from lentivirus or the use of CRISPR to generate complex loss-of-function studies. These genetically modified models are complemented by classical xenografts of human prostate tumor cells in immune-deficient mice. Overall, pre-clinical models have provided a portfolio of model systems to study and address complex mechanisms in prostate cancer for improved treatment options. This review will focus on the advances in each technique.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer4212
TidsskriftCancers
Vol/bind15
Nummer17
Antal sider13
ISSN2072-6694
DOI
StatusUdgivet - sep. 2023

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