Postpartum Disseminated Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection With Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis and Fulminant Neonatal Herpes Infection

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The present study describes a 19-year-old woman with systemic herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 infection postpartum, and a fatal course of neonatal herpesvirus infection. The mother experienced an unusual disease course with hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and persistence of HSV-1 DNA for 15 weeks. Functional investigation of cells from the mother demonstrated significantly impaired induction of antiviral interferons and cytokines in response to viruses and various ligands in the context of normal activation of the transcription factors NF-κB and IRF3. Whole exome sequencing did not reveal any functionally validated genetic variants. We suggest that the functionally impaired antiviral responses, potentially caused by a mutation in CASP8 or other variants in non-coding regions of the genome, contributed to the unusually severe disease course in two generations with disseminated HSV-1 infection evolving into HLH in the mother, and a fatal neonatal HSV-1 infection.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe Journal of Infectious Diseases
Vol/bind225
Nummer1
Sider (fra-til)157-162
Antal sider6
ISSN0022-1899
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2022

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