Population Pharmacokinetics of Piperacillin in the Early Phase of Septic Shock: Does Standard Dosing Result in Therapeutic Plasma Concentrations?

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  • Kristina Öbrink-Hansen
  • ,
  • Rasmus Vestergaard Juul, Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Danmark
  • Merete Storgaard
  • Marianne Kragh Thomsen
  • Tore Forsingdal Hardlei
  • Birgitte Brock
  • ,
  • Mads Kreilgaard, Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Universitetsparken 2, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • ,
  • Jakob Gjedsted

Antibiotic dosing in septic shock patients poses a challenge for clinicians due to the pharmacokinetic (PK) variability seen in this patient population. Piperacillin-tazobactam is often used for empirical treatment, and initial appropriate dosing is crucial for reducing mortality. Accordingly, we determined the pharmacokinetic profile of piperacillin (4 g) every 8 h, during the third consecutive dosing interval, in 15 patients treated empirically for septic shock. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess empirical dosing and to simulate alternative dosing regimens and modes of administration. Time above the MIC (T>MIC) predicted for each patient was evaluated against clinical breakpoint MIC for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (16 mg/liter). Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) targets evaluated were 50% fT>4×MIC and 100% fT>MIC. A population PK model was developed using NONMEM, and data were best described by a two-compartment model. Central and intercompartmental clearances were 3.6 liters/h (relative standard error [RSE], 15.7%) and 6.58 liters/h (RSE, 16.4%), respectively, and central and peripheral volumes were 7.3 liters (RSE, 11.8%) and 3.9 liters (RSE, 9.7%), respectively. Piperacillin plasma concentrations varied considerably between patients and were associated with levels of plasma creatinine. Patients with impaired renal function were more likely to achieve predefined PK/PD targets than were patients with preserved or augmented renal function. Simulations of alternative dosing regimens showed that frequent intermittent bolus dosing as well as dosing by extended and continuous infusion increases the probability of attaining therapeutic plasma concentrations. For septic shock patients with preserved or augmented renal function, dose increment or prolonged infusion of the drug needs to be considered. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT02306928.).

TidsskriftAntimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Sider (fra-til)7018-26
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2015

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