Blattoidea are comprised of the major lineages Blattidae, Lamproblattidae, Tryonicidae, Anaplectidae, and Cryptocercidae + Isoptera. Despite a number of studies, no consensus exists regarding the relationships between these lineages. Additionally, the current division of Blattidae into Archiblattinae, Blattinae, Macrocercinae and Polyzosteriinae needs phylogenetic testing. We present a molecular phylogeny of Blattoidea recovering all the major lineages as monophyletic with Lamproblattidae as sister to the remaining Blattoidea and Tryonicidae as sister to Cryptocercidae + Isoptera. Contrary to many previous studies, we found a high degree of consistency between analyses, possibly due to improved taxon sampling. We found that none of the currently accepted subfamilies of Blattidae are monophyletic. Mapping of distribution revealed a clear geographic structuring at odds with the current subfamilial classification. Based on results from this and other studies, we present a revised classification of Blattidae: we erect two new subfamilies, Eurycotiinae stat. rev. and Austrostylopyginae subfam. nov., reinstate Duchailluiinae stat. rev. and subsume Macrocercinae in Polyzosteriinae. We also present a division of Polyzosteriinae into tribes: Polyzosteriini, Methanini stat. rev., Rothisilphini trib. nov., and Celatoblattini trib. nov. Within Blattidae, Duchailluiinae is sister to the remaining taxa, while Austrostylopyginae is most likely sister to all other Blattidae except Duchailluiinae.