Parasitoids indicate major climate-induced shifts in arctic communities

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  • Tuomas Kankaanpää, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Eero Vesterinen, University of Helsinki, University of Turku, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences
  • ,
  • Bess Hardwick, University of Helsinki
  • ,
  • Niels M. Schmidt
  • Tommi Andersson, University of Turku
  • ,
  • Paul E. Aspholm, Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research
  • ,
  • Isabel C. Barrio, University of Iceland
  • ,
  • Niklas Beckers, University of Bonn
  • ,
  • Joël Bêty, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski
  • ,
  • Tone Birkemoe, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Melissa DeSiervo, Dartmouth College
  • ,
  • Katherine H.I. Drotos, University of Guelph
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  • Dorothee Ehrich, UiT The Arctic University of Norway
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  • Olivier Gilg, Universite de Franche-Comte, Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Arctique
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  • Vladimir Gilg, Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Arctique
  • ,
  • Nils Hein, University of Bonn
  • ,
  • Toke T. Høye
  • Kristian M. Jakobsen, Aarhus Universitet
  • ,
  • Camille Jodouin, University of Guelph
  • ,
  • Jesse Jorna, University of Groningen
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  • Mikhail V. Kozlov, University of Turku
  • ,
  • Jean Claude Kresse
  • Don Jean Leandri-Breton, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski
  • ,
  • Nicolas Lecomte, Universite de Moncton, Canada Research Chair in Polar and Boreal Ecology and Centre d'etudes
  • ,
  • Maarten Loonen, University of Groningen
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  • Philipp Marr, University of Bonn
  • ,
  • Spencer K. Monckton, University of Guelph
  • ,
  • Maia Olsen, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources
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  • Josée Anne Otis, Universite de Moncton
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  • Michelle Pyle, University of Guelph
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  • Ruben E. Roos, Norwegian University of Life Sciences
  • ,
  • Katrine Raundrup, Greenland Institute of Natural Resources
  • ,
  • Daria Rozhkova, Perm State National Research University
  • ,
  • Brigitte Sabard, Groupe de Recherche en Ecologie Arctique
  • ,
  • Aleksandr Sokolov, RAS - Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch
  • ,
  • Natalia Sokolova, RAS - Institute of Plant and Animal Ecology, Ural Branch
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  • Anna M. Solecki, University of Guelph
  • ,
  • Christine Urbanowicz, Dartmouth College
  • ,
  • Catherine Villeneuve, Universite du Quebec a Rimouski
  • ,
  • Evgenya Vyguzova, Perm State National Research University
  • ,
  • Vitali Zverev, University of Turku
  • ,
  • Tomas Roslin, University of Helsinki, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences

Climatic impacts are especially pronounced in the Arctic, which as a region is warming twice as fast as the rest of the globe. Here, we investigate how mean climatic conditions and rates of climatic change impact parasitoid insect communities in 16 localities across the Arctic. We focus on parasitoids in a widespread habitat, Dryas heathlands, and describe parasitoid community composition in terms of larval host use (i.e., parasitoid use of herbivorous Lepidoptera vs. pollinating Diptera) and functional groups differing in their closeness of host associations (koinobionts vs. idiobionts). Of the latter, we expect idiobionts—as being less fine-tuned to host development—to be generally less tolerant to cold temperatures, since they are confined to attacking hosts pupating and overwintering in relatively exposed locations. To further test our findings, we assess whether similar climatic variables are associated with host abundances in a 22 year time series from Northeast Greenland. We find sites which have experienced a temperature rise in summer while retaining cold winters to be dominated by parasitoids of Lepidoptera, with the reverse being true for the parasitoids of Diptera. The rate of summer temperature rise is further associated with higher levels of herbivory, suggesting higher availability of lepidopteran hosts and changes in ecosystem functioning. We also detect a matching signal over time, as higher summer temperatures, coupled with cold early winter soils, are related to high herbivory by lepidopteran larvae, and to declines in the abundance of dipteran pollinators. Collectively, our results suggest that in parts of the warming Arctic, Dryas is being simultaneously exposed to increased herbivory and reduced pollination. Our findings point to potential drastic and rapid consequences of climate change on multitrophic-level community structure and on ecosystem functioning and highlight the value of collaborative, systematic sampling effort.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftGlobal Change Biology
Vol/bind26
Nummer11
Sider (fra-til)6276-6295
Antal sider20
ISSN1354-1013
DOI
StatusUdgivet - nov. 2020

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