Oral contraceptive use and genital anomalies in sons: A Danish cohort study

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Exposure to exogenous sex hormones with estrogenic or anti-androgen properties may influence intrauterine development of male genitals. This population-based cohort study based on data from 44,408 live-born singleton sons in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) aimed to investigate whether maternal use of oral contraceptives prior to or during early pregnancy increase the risk of cryptorchidism or hypospadias. We found no consistent association between use of oral contraceptives and cryptorchidism or hypospadias, neither in those exposed any time four months prior to conception [cryptorchidism: adjusted Odds Ratio (aOR): 1.06 (95% CI: 0.91; 1.23), hypospadias: 0.74 (95% CI: 0.53; 1.03)] nor in those exposed any time during the first trimester of pregnancy [cryptorchidism: aOR: 0.93 (95% CI: 0.53; 1.62), hypospadias: 1.02 (95% CI: 0.32; 3.23)]. Despite relatively strong exposure levels from oral contraceptive use in pregnancy, this study revealed no evidence of an increased risk of either two genital malformations.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftReproductive Toxicology
Vol/bind89
Sider (fra-til)67-73
Antal sider7
ISSN0890-6238
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2019

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