No Differences in Cerebral Immunohistochemical Markers following Remote Ischemic Postconditioning in Newborn Piglets with Hypoxia-Ischemia

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Background  Despite therapeutic hypothermia, neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy still develop neurological disabilities. We have previously investigated neuroprotection by remote ischemic postconditioning (RIPC) in newborn piglets following hypoxia-ischemia (HI). The aim of this study was to further investigate potential effects of RIPC on cerebral immunohistochemical markers related to edema, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Methods  Brain expression of aquaporin 4, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2, and vascular endothelial growth factor was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in 23 piglets, randomly selected from a larger study of RIPC after HI. Twenty animals were subjected to 45 minutes of HI and randomized to treatment with and without RIPC, while three animals were randomized to sham procedures. RIPC was conducted by four conditioning cycles of 5-minute ischemia and reperfusion. Piglets were euthanized 72 hours after the HI insult. Results  Piglets subjected to HI treated with and without RIPC were similar at baseline and following the HI insult. However, piglets randomized to HI alone had longer duration of low blood pressure during the insult. We found no differences in the brain expression of the immunohistochemical markers in any regions of interest or the whole brain between the two HI groups. Conclusion  RIPC did not influence brain expression of markers related to edema, apoptosis, or angiogenesis in newborn piglets at 72 hours after HI. These results support previous findings of limited neuroprotective effect by this RIPC protocol. Our results may have been affected by the time of assessment, use of fentanyl as anesthetic, or limitations related to our immunohistochemical methods.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftNeuropediatrics
Vol/bind53
Nummer6
Sider (fra-til)423-431
Antal sider9
ISSN0174-304X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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