Nitrate in Drinking Water and Time to Pregnancy or Medically Assisted Reproduction in Women and Men: A Nationwide Cohort Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

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Purpose: No studies have investigated if drinking water nitrate affects human fecundity. Experimental studies point at detrimental effects on fetal development and on female and male reproduction. This cohort study aimed to explore if female and male preconception and long-term exposure to nitrate in drinking water was associated with fecundability measured as time to pregnancy (TTP) or use of medically assisted reproduction (MAR) treatment.

Methods: The study population consisted of pregnant women recruited in their first trimester in 1996-2002 to the Danish National Birth Cohort. Preconception drinking-water nitrate exposure was estimated for the pregnant women (89,109 pregnancies), and long-term drinking water nitrate exposure was estimated from adolescence to conception for the pregnant women (77,474 pregnancies) and their male partners (62,000 pregnancies) by linkage to the national drinking water quality-monitoring database Jupiter. Difference in risk of TTP >12 months or use of MAR treatment between five exposure categories and log-transformed continuous models of preconception and long-term nitrate in drinking water were estimated. Binominal regression models for risk ratios (RR) were adjusted for age, occupation, education, population density, and lifestyle factors.

Results: Nitrate in drinking water (median preconception exposure: 1.9 mg/L; median long-term exposure: 3.3 mg/L) was not associated with TTP >12 months or use of MAR treatment, neither in the categorical nor in the continuous models.

Conclusion: We found no association between preconception or long-term exposure to drinking water nitrate and fecundability.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftClinical Epidemiology
Vol/bind14
Sider (fra-til)475-487
Antal sider13
ISSN1179-1349
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2022

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© 2022 Ebdrup et al.

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