The global prevalence of obesity and diabetes mellitus has increased in parallel with increasing cancer incidence, due to environmental and lifestyle factors and population aging. Metabolic diseases are associated with increased cancer risk, so a growing number of cancer patients have coexistent obesity and/or diabetes mellitus. In this narrative review, we highlight recent evidence on the clinical impact of obesity and diabetes mellitus on the prognosis of prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer, and provide an overview of the underlying mechanisms. There is evidence that obesity is associated with increased risk of recurrence, all-cause, and cancer-specific mortality among adults with prostate, breast, and colorectal cancer. Diabetes mellitus is associated with increased all-cause and cancer-specific mortality for these three cancers, beyond any impact of obesity. Evidence also suggests increased risk of colorectal cancer recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus. The underlying mechanisms are multifactorial and likely include hormonal imbalances and chronic inflammation that promote cancer cell growth. Obesity and diabetes mellitus are associated with increased risk of complications and side effects of cancer treatment. Associated comorbidities such as impaired kidney function, cardiovascular disease, and neuropathies may preclude the use of guideline cancer treatment and are competing causes of death. Cancer patients with metabolic diseases require a designated clinical program and a multidisciplinary approach involving oncologists, endocrinologists, surgeons, nutritionists, and physiotherapists, to ensure coordinated and optimized patient care.
|The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
|E-pub ahead of print - 8 aug. 2023