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Nature walks versus medication: A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

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Standard

Nature walks versus medication : A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. / Stevenson, Matt P.; McEwan, Jordan; Bentsen, Peter; Schilhab, Theresa; Glue, Paul; Trani, Paul; Wheeler, Ben; Healey, Dione.

I: Journal of Environmental Psychology, Bind 77, 101679, 10.2021.

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Harvard

Stevenson, MP, McEwan, J, Bentsen, P, Schilhab, T, Glue, P, Trani, P, Wheeler, B & Healey, D 2021, 'Nature walks versus medication: A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder', Journal of Environmental Psychology, bind 77, 101679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679

APA

Stevenson, M. P., McEwan, J., Bentsen, P., Schilhab, T., Glue, P., Trani, P., Wheeler, B., & Healey, D. (2021). Nature walks versus medication: A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 77, [101679]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679

CBE

Stevenson MP, McEwan J, Bentsen P, Schilhab T, Glue P, Trani P, Wheeler B, Healey D. 2021. Nature walks versus medication: A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Journal of Environmental Psychology. 77:Article 101679. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Stevenson, Matt P. ; McEwan, Jordan ; Bentsen, Peter ; Schilhab, Theresa ; Glue, Paul ; Trani, Paul ; Wheeler, Ben ; Healey, Dione. / Nature walks versus medication : A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. I: Journal of Environmental Psychology. 2021 ; Bind 77.

Bibtex

@article{54210ad99b1c4d078e3f1b8a1339bb67,
title = "Nature walks versus medication: A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder",
abstract = "Recent epidemiological studies have found that exposure to nature during childhood can substantially reduce the risk of developing ADHD. In 2009, Taylor and Kuo presented a highly influential study that found walking in a natural environment can improve cognitive performance in children with ADHD, through a process known as attention restoration. Their effect size was large and comparable to those of pharmacological treatments, although no studies to date have attempted to replicate the effect in comparison with medication under experimental conditions. We present a pre-registered (ACTRN12616000125426), double-blinded (medication), randomized-controlled trial that compared the effects of acute exposure to a natural (versus built) environment and medication (versus placebo) on Attention Network Task performance. Participants (n = 24; m = 10.5 years) experienced four treatment combinations (natural environment + medication; natural environment + placebo; built environment + medication; built environment + placebo) across four sessions in randomized order. Linear mixed models revealed improvements in accuracy, response speed, and response stability related to medication use. In contrast to Taylor and Kuo's (2009) findings, no improvements were found after exposure to nature. Explanations of divergent outcomes between the two studies may lie within adjustments made to the original protocol. Discussions of these changes and their implications for restorative environment research offer important insights for future studies exploring environmental effects on children with ADHD.",
keywords = "Attention restoration, Executive attention, Greenspace, Modifiable risk factor, Nonpharmacological treatment, Responsiveness to nature",
author = "Stevenson, {Matt P.} and Jordan McEwan and Peter Bentsen and Theresa Schilhab and Paul Glue and Paul Trani and Ben Wheeler and Dione Healey",
note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021 Elsevier Ltd",
year = "2021",
month = oct,
doi = "10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679",
language = "English",
volume = "77",
journal = "Journal of Environmental Psychology",
issn = "0272-4944",
publisher = "Academic Press",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nature walks versus medication

T2 - A pre-registered randomized-controlled trial in children with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

AU - Stevenson, Matt P.

AU - McEwan, Jordan

AU - Bentsen, Peter

AU - Schilhab, Theresa

AU - Glue, Paul

AU - Trani, Paul

AU - Wheeler, Ben

AU - Healey, Dione

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

PY - 2021/10

Y1 - 2021/10

N2 - Recent epidemiological studies have found that exposure to nature during childhood can substantially reduce the risk of developing ADHD. In 2009, Taylor and Kuo presented a highly influential study that found walking in a natural environment can improve cognitive performance in children with ADHD, through a process known as attention restoration. Their effect size was large and comparable to those of pharmacological treatments, although no studies to date have attempted to replicate the effect in comparison with medication under experimental conditions. We present a pre-registered (ACTRN12616000125426), double-blinded (medication), randomized-controlled trial that compared the effects of acute exposure to a natural (versus built) environment and medication (versus placebo) on Attention Network Task performance. Participants (n = 24; m = 10.5 years) experienced four treatment combinations (natural environment + medication; natural environment + placebo; built environment + medication; built environment + placebo) across four sessions in randomized order. Linear mixed models revealed improvements in accuracy, response speed, and response stability related to medication use. In contrast to Taylor and Kuo's (2009) findings, no improvements were found after exposure to nature. Explanations of divergent outcomes between the two studies may lie within adjustments made to the original protocol. Discussions of these changes and their implications for restorative environment research offer important insights for future studies exploring environmental effects on children with ADHD.

AB - Recent epidemiological studies have found that exposure to nature during childhood can substantially reduce the risk of developing ADHD. In 2009, Taylor and Kuo presented a highly influential study that found walking in a natural environment can improve cognitive performance in children with ADHD, through a process known as attention restoration. Their effect size was large and comparable to those of pharmacological treatments, although no studies to date have attempted to replicate the effect in comparison with medication under experimental conditions. We present a pre-registered (ACTRN12616000125426), double-blinded (medication), randomized-controlled trial that compared the effects of acute exposure to a natural (versus built) environment and medication (versus placebo) on Attention Network Task performance. Participants (n = 24; m = 10.5 years) experienced four treatment combinations (natural environment + medication; natural environment + placebo; built environment + medication; built environment + placebo) across four sessions in randomized order. Linear mixed models revealed improvements in accuracy, response speed, and response stability related to medication use. In contrast to Taylor and Kuo's (2009) findings, no improvements were found after exposure to nature. Explanations of divergent outcomes between the two studies may lie within adjustments made to the original protocol. Discussions of these changes and their implications for restorative environment research offer important insights for future studies exploring environmental effects on children with ADHD.

KW - Attention restoration

KW - Executive attention

KW - Greenspace

KW - Modifiable risk factor

KW - Nonpharmacological treatment

KW - Responsiveness to nature

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85113999881&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679

DO - 10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101679

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85113999881

VL - 77

JO - Journal of Environmental Psychology

JF - Journal of Environmental Psychology

SN - 0272-4944

M1 - 101679

ER -