Microbial N Transformations and N2O Emission after Simulated Grassland Cultivation: Effects of the Nitrification Inhibitor 3,4-Dimethylpyrazole Phosphate (DMPP)

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Grassland cultivation can mobilize large pools of N in the soil, with the potential for N leaching and N2O emissions. Spraying with the nitrification inhibitor 3,4-dimethylpyrazole phosphate (DMPP) before cultivation was simulated by use of soil columns in which the residue distribution corresponded to plowing or rotovation to study the effects of soil-residue contact on N transformations. DMPP was sprayed on aboveground parts of ryegrass and white clover plants before incorporation. During a 42-day incubation, soil mineral N dynamics, potential ammonia oxidation (PAO), denitrifying enzyme activity (DEA), nitrifier and denitrifier populations, and N2O emissions were investigated. The soil NO3− pool was enriched with 15N to trace sources of N2O. Ammonium was rapidly released from decomposing residues, and PAO was stimulated in soil near residues. DMPP effectively reduced NH4+ transformation irrespective of residue distribution. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) were both present, but only the AOB amoA transcript abundance correlated with PAO. DMPP inhibited the transcription of AOB amoA genes. Denitrifier genes and transcripts (nirK, nirS, and clades I and II of nosZ) were recovered, and a correlation was found between nirS mRNA and DEA. DMPP showed no adverse effects on the abundance or activity of denitrifiers. The 15N enrichment of N2O showed that denitrification was responsible for 80 to 90% of emissions. With support from a control experiment without NO3− amendment, it was concluded that DMPP will generally reduce the potential for leaching of residue-derived N, whereas the effect of DMPP
OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummere02019-16
TidsskriftApplied and Environmental Microbiology
Vol/bind83
Nummer1
ISSN0099-2240
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2017

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