Metabolic syndrome and aerobic fitness in patients with first-episode schizophrenia, including a 1-year follow-up

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Objective: To compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and metabolic abnormalities in patients with first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with sex-and age-matched healthy controls; to investigate changes in MetS during 1 year of treatment; and to investigate predictors of MetS.

Methods: Patients with FES (N=99) and healthy controls (N=50) were included in the study. MetS was defined according to IDF based on waist circumference (WC), blood pressure (BP), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and fasting-glucose. Data on physical activity, aerobic fitness, smoking, and dietary habits, sleeping disturbances, psychopathology and psychotropic medication were also obtained. Patients were assessed at baseline and at 1 year follow-up.

Results: Compared with healthy controls patients with FES had a higher baseline prevalence of MetS (p = .07), and metabolic abnormalities: WC (p <.01), TG (p <.01), HDL (p = .017), and fasting glucose (p = .04). Patients with FES had significantly increased prevalence of MetS (p = .03), WC (p = .04), and TG (p = .01) during the study period. Antipsychotics and low physical activity were significantly correlated with the increase in metabolic abnormalities. In multivariate analyses low aerobic fitness was the most consistent and significant predictor of metabolic abnormalities and MetS.

Conclusion: MetS and metabolic abnormalities are highly prevalent in patients with FES, and both increase significantly during 1 year of treatment. Apart from confirming the metabolic adverse effects of antipsychotics, our study highlights that low aerobic fitness is a significant risk factor for MetS. Promoting a healthier lifestyle should be part of psychiatric treatment and rehabilitation. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

TidsskriftSchizophrenia Research
Sider (fra-til)381-387
Antal sider7
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2015

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