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Mechanically-controlled, Wide-angle Scanning, Series-fed Antenna Array with Low Profile for High-Power Radar Systems

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This paper presents the design and implementation
of a mechanically-controlled, series-fed antenna array featuring
wide-angle beamsteering at the X-band. A theoretical model of a
series-fed array, including phase shifters inserted between consecutive
elements, is initially developed to derive design rules and
gain insight into crucial performance trade-offs. Subsequently, a
mechanically-controlled, reflection-type phase shifter consisting
of a branch line coupler and two Pi-network reflective loads is
presented. A movable metallic overlay tunes the impedance of
the reflective loads, thus effectively modifying the output phase.
While requiring a minimal linear displacement of only 0.06λ0,
this topology provides a maximum phase shift of 300◦ with an
average insertion loss of 1 dB and is exploited for synthesizing a
series-fed patch array. Based on simulations and measurements,
the proposed antenna offers an almost constant realized gain of
about 15 dBi within a wide scanning range of ±50◦, and the side
lobe level is better than -12 dB. The average total efficiency is
50%, and the cross-polarization levels are at least 11 dB below
the maximum realized gain. The main weaknesses are the narrow
bandwidth of 2.5% and the slight beam squint as the frequency
varies. The proposed design is ideal for radars due to its excellent
performance and high power-handling capability.
TidsskriftI E E E Transactions on Antennas and Propagation
StatusAccepteret/In press - apr. 2023

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