It Takes Two Planets in Resonance to Tango around K2-146

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  • Kristine W.F. Lam, Technical University of Berlin
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  • Judith Korth, University of Cologne
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  • Kento Masuda, Princeton University
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  • Szilárd Csizmadia, German Aerospace Center
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  • Philipp Eigmüller, German Aerospace Center
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  • Gumundur Kári Stefánsson, Pennsylvania State University
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  • Michael Endl, University of Texas at Austin
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  • Simon Albrecht
  • Paul Robertson, Pennsylvania State University
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  • Rafael Luque, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • John H. Livingston, University of Tokyo
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  • Teruyuki Hirano, Tokyo Institute of Technology
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  • Roi Alonso Sobrino, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Oscar Barragán, University of Oxford
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  • Juan Cabrera, German Aerospace Center
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  • Ilaria Carleo, Wesleyan University
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  • Alexander Chaushev, Technical University of Berlin
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  • William D. Cochran, University of Texas at Austin
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  • Fei Dai, Princeton University, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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  • Jerome de Leon, University of Tokyo
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  • Hans J. Deeg, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Anders Erikson, German Aerospace Center
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  • Massimiliano Esposito, Karl Schwarzschild Observatory
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  • Malcolm Fridlund, Chalmers University of Technology, Leiden University
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  • Akihiko Fukui, National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan
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  • Davide Gandolfi, University of Turin
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  • Iskra Georgieva, Chalmers University of Technology
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  • Lucá Gonzalez Cuesta, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Sascha Grziwa, University of Cologne
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  • Eike W. Guenther, Karl Schwarzschild Observatory
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  • Artie P. Hatzes, Karl Schwarzschild Observatory
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  • Diego Hidalgo, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Maria Hjorth
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  • Petr Kabath, Czech Academy of Sciences
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  • Emil Knudstrup
  • Mikkel N. Lund
  • Suvrath Mahadevan, Pennsylvania State University, Center for Exoplanets and Habitable Worlds
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  • Savita Mathur, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Pilar Montañes Rodríguez, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Felipe Murgas, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Norio Narita, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, National Institutes of Natural Sciences - National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Japan Science and Technology Agency
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  • David Nespral, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Prajwal Niraula, Massachusetts Institute of Technology
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  • Enric Palle, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Martin P tzold, University of Cologne
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  • Carina M. Persson, Chalmers University of Technology
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  • Jorge Prieto-Arranz, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • Heike Rauer, Technical University of Berlin, German Aerospace Center, Free University of Berlin
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  • Seth Redfield, Wesleyan University
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  • Ignasi Ribas, Autonomous University of Barcelona, Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia
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  • Marek Skarka, Czech Academy of Sciences, Masaryk University
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  • Alexis M.S. Smith, German Aerospace Center
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  • Jan Subjak, Czech Academy of Sciences, Charles University
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  • Vincent Van Eylen, Princeton University, Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, University College London

K2-146 is a cool, 0.358M⊙ dwarf that was found to host a mini-Neptune with a 2.67 day period. The planet exhibited strong transit timing variations (TTVs) of greater than 30 minutes, indicative of the presence of an additional object in the system. Here we report the discovery of the previously undetected outer planet in the system, K2-146 c, using additional photometric data. K2-146 c was found to have a grazing transit geometry and a 3.97 day period. The outer planet was only significantly detected in the latter K2 campaigns presumably because of precession of its orbital plane. The TTVs of K2-146 b and c were measured using observations spanning a baseline of almost 1200 days. We found strong anti-correlation in the TTVs, suggesting the two planets are gravitationally interacting. Our TTV and transit model analyses revealed that K2-146 b has a radius of 2.25 ± 0.10 R⊕ and a mass of 5.6 ± 0.7 M⊕, whereas K2-146 c has a radius of 2.59-0.39+1.81 R⊕ and a mass of 7.1 ± 0.9 M⊕. The inner and outer planets likely have moderate eccentricities of e = 0.14 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07, respectively. Long-term numerical integrations of the two-planet orbital solution show that it can be dynamically stable for at least 2 Myr. We show that the resonance angles of the planet pair are librating, which may be an indication that K2-146 b and c are in a 3:2 mean motion resonance. The orbital architecture of the system points to a possible convergent migration origin.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer120
TidsskriftAstronomical Journal
Vol/bind159
Nummer3
Antal sider17
ISSN0004-6256
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 2020

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