Is Cardiac Rehabilitation Equally Effective in Improving Dietary Intake in All Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease?

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  • Ulla Bach Laursen, Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, Aalborg, Denmark., Danmark
  • Martin Nygård Johansen, Unit of Clinical Biostatistics, Aalborg University Hospital, Denmark (S.L.-C.)., Danmark
  • Albert Marni Joensen
  • ,
  • Kim Overvad
  • Mogens Lytken Larsen, Danish Centre against Inequality in Health (DACUS), Department of Cardiology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg

Objective: To investigate the association between sociodemographic characteristics and changes in dietary intake in patients with ischemic heart disease who were following a cardiac rehabilitation program.Methods: Longitudinal study among patients with first-time admission to outpatient cardiac rehabilitation after ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, unstable angina pectoris or stable angina pectoris. We used a validated self-administered food frequency questionnaire to assess the dietary intake before rehabilitation, post rehabilitation and 6 months after baseline. The intake was summarized into a fat and fish-fruit-vegetable score for both sexes. To assess the within-patient differences in dietary scores, a paired t-test was applied. Regression analyses were performed to assess the association between sociodemographic characteristics and changes in diet.Results: 186 patients completed two measurements, 157 patients completed all three measurements. Fat and fish-fruit-vegetable scores increased statistically significantly and improvements remained statistically significant at follow-up. Fat scores increased less in employed men than in retired men (-11 (95% CI -17; -5)). Fish-fruit-vegetable scores increased less in men with a bachelor degree than in men with a vocational education (-8 (95% CI -13; -3)) as well as in retired women compared with employed women (-18 (95% CI -32; -4)).Conclusions: Patients statistically significantly improved their dietary intake and improvements remained at follow-up. Dietary improvements were sensitive to marital status, living arrangements and employment status. Unemployed and retired women did not seem to improve their diet as much as employed women. Additional dietary intervention may become relevant in some patient groups defined by sociodemographic characteristics. (250).

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftJournal of the American College of Nutrition
Sider (fra-til)1-8
Antal sider8
ISSN0731-5724
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 27 maj 2020

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