Interferon-Inducible MicroRNA miR-128 Modulates HIV-1 Replication by Targeting TNPO3 mRNA

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  • Aurore Bochnakian, University of California at Irvine
  • ,
  • Anjie Zhen, University of California Los Angeles
  • ,
  • Dimitrios G. Zisoulis, University of California at Irvine
  • ,
  • Adam Idica, University of California at Irvine
  • ,
  • Vineet N. KewalRamani, National Institutes of Health
  • ,
  • Nicholas Neel, University of California Los Angeles
  • ,
  • Iben Daugaard
  • Matthias Hamdorf, University of California at Irvine
  • ,
  • Scott Kitchen, University of California Los Angeles
  • ,
  • Kyeong Eun Lee, National Institutes of Health
  • ,
  • Irene Munk Pedersen, University of California at Irvine

The HIV/AIDS pandemic remains an important threat to human health. We have recently demonstrated that a novel microRNA (miR), miR-128, represses retrotransposon long interspaced element 1 (L1) by a dual mechanism, namely, by directly targeting the coding region of the L1 RNA and by repressing a required nuclear import factor (TNPO1). We have further determined that miR-128 represses the expression of all three TNPO proteins (transportins TNPO1, TNPO2, and TNPO3). Here, we establish that miR-128 also influences HIV-1 replication by repressing TNPO3, a factor that regulates HIV-1 nuclear import and viral; replication of TNPO3 is well established to regulate HIV-1 nuclear import and viral replication. Here, we report that type I interferon (IFN)-inducible miR-128 directly targets two sites in the TNPO3 mRNA, significantly downregulating TNPO3 mRNA and protein expression levels. Challenging miR-modulated Jurkat cells or primary CD4+ T-cells with wild-type (WT), replication-competent HIV-1 demonstrated that miR-128 reduces viral replication and delays spreading of infection. Manipulation of miR-128 levels in HIV-1 target cell lines and in primary CD4+ T-cells by overexpression or knockdown showed that reduction of TNPO3 levels by miR-128 significantly affects HIV-1 replication but not murine leukemia virus (MLV) infection and that miR-128 modulation of HIV-1 replication is reduced with TNPO3-independent HIV-1 virus, suggesting that miR-128-indued TNPO3 repression contributes to the inhibition of HIV-1 replication. Finally, we determine that anti-miR-128 partly neutralizes the IFN-mediated block of HIV-1. Thus, we have established a novel role of miR-128 in antiviral defense in human cells, namely inhibiting HIV-1 replication by altering the cellular milieu through targeting factors that include TNPO3.IMPORTANCE HIV-1 is the causative agent of AIDS. During HIV-1 infection, type I interferons (IFNs) are induced, and their effectors limit HIV-1 replication at multiple steps in its life cycle. However, the cellular targets of INFs are still largely unknown. In this study, we identified the interferon-inducible microRNA (miR) miR-128, a novel antiviral mediator that suppresses the expression of the host gene TNPO3, which is known to modulate HIV-1 replication. Notably, we observe that anti-miR-128 partly neutralizes the IFN-mediated block of HIV-1. Elucidation of the mechanisms through which miR-128 impairs HIV-1 replication may provide novel candidates for the development of therapeutic interventions.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummere00364-19
TidsskriftJournal of Virology
Vol/bind93
Nummer20
Antal sider15
ISSN0022-538X
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2019

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