Integrated LC-MS and GC-MS-Based Metabolomics Reveal the Effects of Plant Competition on the Rye Metabolome

Hossein Hazrati, Per Kudsk, Ling Ding, Henriette Uthe, Inge S. Fomsgaard*

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

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Plants compete with their neighbors about the limited resources available to them. Plants under induced stress resulting from competition may alter their metabolome to increase their resilience or enhance their defense mechanisms. In the present study, rye (Secale cereale) plants were cocultivated with different densities (3, 12, and 18 plants per pot) of Austrian pea (Pisum sativum subsp. arvense), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and Alexandrian clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) to elucidate the changes in the rye metabolome in response to the different levels of competition. Global metabolic profiling by liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (LC-QqQ-MS), liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF-MS), and gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was performed on rye plants, and the acquired data were analyzed using uni- and multivariate statistics. Targeted analysis showed that a high level of competition reduced the concentration of aglycone benzoxazinoids (BXs) and increased glycoside BXs in rye roots. Untargeted metabolomics analysis indicated an increase in the rye root content of the allelopathic compounds 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and uracil in response to competition. Untargeted analysis of rye shoots revealed that the plant competition increased the d-pyroglutamic acid, which is an elicitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our results have enhanced the knowledge of the biochemical response of plant species to cocultivation.

TidsskriftJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Sider (fra-til)3056–3066
Antal sider11
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2022


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