Research on the effects of different fiber types and levels on infection with Brachyspira hyodysenteriae on growth performance and nutrients digestibility in pigs is scarce. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of infection with B. hyodysenteriae when feeding diets varying in soluble and insoluble dietary fiber (DF) on the expression of swine dysentery, growth performance, and digestibility of organic matter (OM) nutrients. A total of 96 growing pigs (26.9 ± 2.5 kg) were used for the experiment and divided into six blocks. The growing pigs were fed one of four diets for 12 wk: low fiber (LF), high fiber (HF), high soluble fiber (HS), and high insoluble fiber (HI). After 2 wk, half of the pigs were inoculated with B. hyodysenteriae. Half of the pigs in each group were euthanized at week 6 for the measurement of the apparent digestibility at the ileum, cecum, colon, and total tract. The remaining pigs were maintained to observe and analyze the clinical expression of fecal score and excretion of B. hyodysenteriae, growth performance, and total tract digestibility up to 12 wk. In the current study, the experimental diets did not influence the expression of infection in the pigs. The body weight and average daily gain (ADG) were in line with the results of clinical expression from week 4 to 6. However, the ADG of the infected pigs started to recover from week 6 (P < 0.05) and then recovered from week 8 to 12 (P < 0.05). The infection with B. hyodysenteriae did not impair apparent ileal digestibility (AID; P > 0.05), whereas the apparent digestibility of OM, total non-starch polysaccharide, non-cellulosic polysaccharide, and cellulose in the cecum of the infected pigs was higher than non-infected pigs (P < 0.05). The apparent colonic digestibility of ash and nitrogen was higher in non-infected pigs than in infected pigs (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the LF diet had a higher digestibility in all segments of the intestinal tract, whereas the HS diet had the lowest AID but higher or similar to the LF diet in the cecum, colon, and the total tract (P < 0.05). The pigs fed the HF and HI diets, with a high proportion of insoluble fiber, had a lower digestibility in the hindgut than the other two diets (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the infection with B. hyodysenteriae negatively influenced clinical signs of swine dysentery and growth performance but did not impair AID, and neither soluble nor insoluble DF influenced the expression of the infection.