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Inclusion and exclusion during COVID 19 school closures

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

In spring 2020, schools across the world closed down for students and teachers due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Since then, there have been numerous inquiries into how the school closures affected students. However, most of these inquiries apply a simple causal perspective according to which school closures are described as cause, and poor wellbeing, learning loss, etc. as effects. The aim of this article is to identify the complex social mechanisms that were triggered in the schoolchildren’s everyday lives in relation to school and home. The method employed is to analyze quantitative and qualitative data concerning students’ (n = 5,953) and parents’ (n = 5,054) reactions to the school closures in Denmark in spring 2020 through the lens of a system theoretical understanding of inclusion and exclusion mechanisms. The analysis demonstrates that one important reason for the consequences of school closures was that fundamental school-based inclusion and exclusion processes were interrupted, and that these processes could not be fully compensated by parents and siblings or by the use of digital media. Finally, the analysis argues that the closures not only affected the students’ learning and wellbeing but also presented a threat to their acquisition of fundamental inclusion and exclusion competencies.
TidsskriftInternational Journal of Inclusive Education
StatusAfsendt - 12 jul. 2023
BegivenhedTrivsel og mistrivsel blandt børn og unge. Hvad ved vi, og hvad kan vi gøre? - Danmarks institut for Pædagogik og Uddannelse, Kbh. NV, Danmark
Varighed: 27 mar. 202327 mar. 2023


KonferenceTrivsel og mistrivsel blandt børn og unge. Hvad ved vi, og hvad kan vi gøre?
LokationDanmarks institut for Pædagogik og Uddannelse
ByKbh. NV

Bibliografisk note

The authors were supported by the Research Council of Norway (grant number: 325977) during the preparation of this article.


  • Inclusion, Exclusion, Students, Inclusion competencies, Covid-19, School closures, Disabilities

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