Incidence and Mortality of Second Primary Cancers in Danish Patients With Retinoblastoma, 1943-2013

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Importance: In heritable retinoblastoma, there is a significantly increased risk of second primary cancers (SPCs). Improved knowledge about the incidence and influence of heritability and treatment is important during therapy for patients with retinoblastoma. Objective: To assess the incidence of SPC in patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma in Denmark from 1943 to 2013 with a focus on heritability and the association of external radiotherapy with mortality. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, data were extracted from the Danish Ocular Oncology Group Database containing complete data on all patients diagnosed with retinoblastoma , and obtained from the Danish Cancer Registry, which includes information on all patients with cancer from 1943 to December 31, 2013. Data analysis was conducted from December 1, 2017, to October 1, 2019. Data on 323 patients were included. Exposures: Heritability and retinoblastoma treatment. Main Outcomes and Measures: Standardized incidence rate, excess absolute risk, cumulative incidence of SPC, and mortality from SPC. Association of heritability and treatment with outcomes was estimated. Results: Of the 323 patients included in the analysis, 181 were men (56%), 133 had heritable retinoblastoma (41%), and 190 had nonheritable retinoblastoma (59%). The median age at diagnosis of SPC was 32.4 (interquartile range, 15.4-43.9) years in patients with heritable retinoblastoma and 38.6 (interquartile range, 20.5-49.4) years in those with nonheritable retinoblastoma. Twenty-five SPCs were identified in patients with heritable retinoblastoma vs 14 in patients with nonheritable retinoblastoma. Standardized incidence rate (SIR) of SPC in patients with heritable retinoblastoma was 11.39 (95% CI, 7.37-16.81) with an excess absolute risk of 70 cases per 10 000 person-years; the highest SIRs were for sarcoma (181.13; 95% CI, 98.94-303.92) and malignant melanoma (26.78; 95% CI, 9.78-58.30). The SIR for SPC in patients with nonheritable retinoblastoma was 1.52 (95% CI, 0.81-2.60). The cumulative incidence of SPCs at age 60 years was significantly higher in patients with heritable retinoblastoma (51%) compared with those with nonheritable retinoblastoma (13%) (P < .001) (hazard ratio, 5.0; 95% CI, 2.5-10.3). No significant differences were identified in overall risk of SPC in patients with heritable retinoblastoma treated with 3 different modalities: external radiotherapy, plaque (but no external) radiotherapy, and enucleation only, but an increased proportion of sarcomas was noted in the irradiated field. Mortality due to SPC was also higher in survivors of heritable retinoblastoma compared with those with nonheritable retinoblastoma (cumulative mortality, 34% vs 12% at age 60 years; P = .03). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this study suggest that the incidence and mortality associated with SPC were significantly higher in patients with heritable retinoblastoma vs patients with nonheritable retinoblastoma. The largest increases in risk were noted for sarcoma and malignant melanoma. External radiotherapy did not appear to increase the risk. These findings are relevant when treating patients with retinoblastoma to manage the risk for SPC.

TidsskriftJAMA network open
Antal sider12
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2020

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