Importance of Leu99 in transmembrane segment M1 of the Na+, K+ -ATPase in the binding and occlusion of K+.

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    Twenty-six point mutations were introduced into the N-terminal and middle parts of transmembrane segment M1 of the Na+, K+ -ATPase and its cytosolic extension. None of the alterations to charged and polar residues in the N-terminal part of M1 and its cytosolic extension had any major effect on the cation binding properties, thus rejecting the hypothesis that these residues are involved in cation selectivity. By contrast, specific residues in the middle part of M1, particularly Leu(99), were found critical to K+ interaction of the enzyme. Hence, mutation L99A reduced the affinity for K+ activation of E2P dephosphorylation 17-fold, and L99F reduced the equilibrium level of the K+-occluded intermediate [K2]E2 and increased the rate of K+ deocclusion 39-fold, i.e. more than seen for mutation E329Q of the cation-binding glutamate in M4. L99Q affected K+ interaction in yet another way, the equilibrium level of [K2]E2 being slightly increased despite an increased rate of K+ deocclusion, suggesting that the K+ ions leave and enter the occlusion pocket more frequently than in the wild type. L99Q furthermore affected the ability to discriminate between Na+ and K+ on the extracellular side. Our findings can be explained by a structural model in which Leu(99) and Glu(329) interact and cooperate in K+ binding and gating of the K+ sites. The disturbance of K+ interaction in mutants with alteration to Leu(91), Phe(95), Ser(96), or Leu(98) could be a consequence of the roles of these residues in positioning the M1 helix optimally for the interaction between Leu(99) and Glu(329). Phe(95) may serve to stabilize the pivot for movement of M1 through interaction with Ile(287) in M3.
    Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-17
    TidsskriftJournal of Biological Chemistry
    Sider (fra-til)23854-23866
    Antal sider12
    StatusUdgivet - 2007