Immediate cardiopulmonary responses to consecutive pulmonary embolism: a randomized, controlled, experimental study

Mads Dam Lyhne*, Jacob Gammelgaard Schultz, Christian Schmidt Mortensen, Anders Kramer, Jens Erik Nielsen-Kudsk, Asger Andersen

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review


Background: Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) induces ventilation-perfusion mismatch and hypoxia and increases pulmonary pressure and right ventricular (RV) afterload, entailing potentially fatal RV failure within a short timeframe. Cardiopulmonary factors may respond differently to increased clot burden. We aimed to elucidate immediate cardiopulmonary responses during successive PE episodes in a porcine model. Methods: This was a randomized, controlled, blinded study of repeated measurements. Twelve pigs were randomly assigned to receive sham procedures or consecutive PEs every 15 min until doubling of mean pulmonary pressure. Cardiopulmonary assessments were conducted at 1, 2, 5, and 13 min after each PE using pressure-volume loops, invasive pressures, and arterial and mixed venous blood gas analyses. ANOVA and mixed-model statistical analyses were applied. Results: Pulmonary pressures increased after the initial PE administration (p < 0.0001), with a higher pulmonary pressure change compared to pressure change observed after the following PEs. Conversely, RV arterial elastance and pulmonary vascular resistance was not increased after the first PE, but after three PEs an increase was observed (p = 0.0103 and p = 0.0015, respectively). RV dilatation occurred following initial PEs, while RV ejection fraction declined after the third PE (p = 0.004). RV coupling exhibited a decreasing trend from the first PE (p = 0.095), despite increased mechanical work (p = 0.003). Ventilatory variables displayed more incremental changes with successive PEs. Conclusion: In an experimental model of consecutive PE, RV afterload elevation and dysfunction manifested after the third PE, in contrast to pulmonary pressure that increased after the first PE. Ventilatory variables exhibited a more direct association with clot burden.

TidsskriftBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - maj 2024


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