Heterogeneous Ion-Induced Nucleation of Water and Butanol Vapors Studied via Computational Quantum Chemistry beyond Prenucleation and Critical Cluster Sizes

Antti Toropainen*, Juha Kangasluoma, Hanna Vehkamäki, Jakub Kubečka

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisTidsskriftartikelForskningpeer review

Abstract

Water and butanol are used as working fluids in condensation particle counters, and condensation of a single vapor onto an ion can be used as a simple model system for the study of ion-induced nucleation in the atmosphere. Motivated by this, we examine heterogeneous nucleation of water (H2O) and n-butanol (BuOH) vapors onto three positively (Li+, Na+, K+) and three negatively charged (F-, Cl-, Br-) ions using classical nucleation theory and computational quantum chemistry methods. We study phenomena that cannot be captured by Kelvin-Thomson equation for small nucleation ion cores. Our quantum chemistry calculations reveal the molecular mechanism behind ion-induced nucleation for each studied system. Typically, ions become solvated from all sides after several vapor molecules condense onto the ion. However, we show that the clusters of water and large negatively charged ions (Cl- and Br-) thermodynamically prefer the ion being migrated to the cluster surface. Although our methods generally do not show clear sign-preference for ion-water nucleation, we identified positive sign-preference for ion-butanol nucleation caused by the possibility to form stabilizing hydrogen bonds between butanol molecules condensed onto a positively charged ion. These bonds cannot form when butanol condenses onto a negatively charged ion. Therefore, we show that ion charge, its sign, as well as vapor properties have effects on the prenucleation and critical cluster/droplet sizes and also on the molecular mechanism of ion-induced nucleation.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThe Journal of Physical Chemistry A
Vol/bind127
Nummer18
Sider (fra-til)3976–3990
Antal sider15
ISSN1089-5639
DOI
StatusUdgivet - maj 2023

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