Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)

Stig U Andersen, Tapas Chakraborty, Wei Chen, Xin-Ming Chen, Yan Chen, Malene Hansen, Kun Huang, Christian A Hubner, Thomas E Jensen, Niels Jessen, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Joo-Yong Lee, Bin Li, Jing Li, Jiong Li, Qing Li, Yuan Li, Paula Lindner, Wei Liu, Anders H LundSara Martin, Trine H Mogensen, Andreas Buch Møller, Luca M Neri, Morten Petersen, Martin Post, Chen Wang, Hao Wang, Qing Wang, Qing Wang, Qing Wang, Yan Wang, Yu Wang, Zhe Wang, Min Wu, Yao-Wen Wu, Hui Yang, Ling Yang, Qian Yang, Hong Zhang, Hong Zhang, Lin Zhang, Lu Zhang, Peng Zhang, Xiaoyan Zhang, Yang Zhang, Yuan-Yuan Zhang, Zhe Zhang, Zili Zhang, Hao Zhou, Wei-Xing Zong

Publikation: Bidrag til tidsskrift/Konferencebidrag i tidsskrift /Bidrag til avisReviewForskningpeer review


In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field.

Sider (fra-til)1-382
Antal sider382
StatusUdgivet - feb. 2021


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