Global distribution of earthworm diversity

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  • Helen R P Phillips, Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
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  • Carlos A Guerra, Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany.
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  • Marie L C Bartz, Universidade Positivo, Curitiba, PR 81280-330, Brazil.
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  • Maria J I Briones, Departamento de Ecología y Biología Animal, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.
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  • George Brown, Embrapa Forestry, Colombo, PR 83411-000, Brazil.
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  • Thomas W Crowther, Crowther Lab, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
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  • Olga Ferlian, Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
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  • Konstantin B Gongalsky, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.
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  • Johan van den Hoogen, Crowther Lab, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
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  • Julia Krebs, Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
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  • Alberto Orgiazzi, Joint Research Centre, European Commission, Ispra, Italy
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  • Devin Routh, Crowther Lab, Department of Environmental Systems Science, Institute of Integrative Biology, ETH Zürich, 8092 Zürich, Switzerland.
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  • Benjamin Schwarz, Biometry and Environmental System Analysis, University of Freiburg, 79106 Freiburg, Germany.
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  • Elizabeth M Bach, Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative and School of Global Environmental Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
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  • Joanne Bennett, Institute of Biology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, 06108 Halle (Saale), Germany.
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  • Ulrich Brose, Institute of Biodiversity, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
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  • Thibaud Decaëns, CEFE, UMR 5175, CNRS-Univ Montpellier-Univ Paul-Valéry-EPHE-SupAgro Montpellier-INRA-IRD, 34293 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
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  • Birgitta König-Ries, Institute of Computer Science, Friedrich Schiller University Jena, 07743 Jena, Germany.
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  • Michel Loreau, Centre for Biodiversity Theory and Modeling, Theoretical and Experimental Ecology Station, CNRS, 09200 Moulis, France.
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  • Jérôme Mathieu, Sorbonne Université, CNRS, UPEC, Paris 7, INRA, IRD, Institut d'Ecologie et des Sciences de l'Environnement de Paris, F-75005 Paris, France.
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  • Christian Mulder, Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, University of Catania, 95124 Catania, Italy.
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  • Wim H van der Putten, Laboratory of Nematology, Department of Plant Sciences, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
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  • Kelly S Ramirez, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands.
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  • Matthias C Rillig, Institute of Biology, Freie Universität Berlin, 14195 Berlin, Germany.
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  • David Russell, Department of Soil Zoology, Senckenberg Museum for Natural History Görlitz, 02826 Görlitz, Germany.
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  • Michiel Rutgers, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment, Bilthoven, Netherlands.
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  • Madhav P Thakur, Department of Terrestrial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), 6700 AB Wageningen, Netherlands.
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  • Franciska T de Vries, Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1012 WX Amsterdam, Netherlands.
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  • Diana H Wall, Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative and School of Global Environmental Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
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  • David A Wardle, Asian School of the Environment, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 Singapore.
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  • Miwa Arai, Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, Tsukuba 305-8604, Japan
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  • Fredrick O Ayuke, Department of Land Resource Management and Agricultural Technology (LARMAT), College of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences, University of Nairobi, Nairobi 00625, Kenya.
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  • Geoff H Baker, CSIRO Health and Biosecurity, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia.
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  • Robin Beauséjour, Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke J1K 2R1, Canada.
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  • José C Bedano, Geology Department, FCEFQyN, ICBIA-CONICET (National Scientific and Technical Research Council), National University of Río Cuarto, X5804 BYA Río Cuarto, Argentina.
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  • Klaus Birkhofer, Department of Ecology, Brandenburg University of Technology, 03046 Cottbus, Germany.
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  • Eric Blanchart, Eco&Sols, University of Montpellier, IRD, CIRAD, INRA, Montpellier SupAgro, 34060 Montpellier, France.
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  • Bernd Blossey, Department of Natural Resources, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853, USA.
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  • Thomas Bolger, UCD Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
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  • Robert L Bradley, Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke J1K 2R1, Canada.
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  • Mac A Callaham, USDA Forest Service, Southern Research Station, Athens, GA 30602, USA.
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  • Yvan Capowiez, UMR 1114 "EMMAH," INRA, Site Agroparc, 84914 Avignon, France.
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  • Mark E Caulfield, Farming Systems Ecology, Wageningen University and Research, 6700 AK Wageningen, Netherlands.
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  • Amy Choi, Faculty of Forestry, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON M5S 3B3, Canada.
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  • Felicity V Crotty, School of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Royal Agricultural University, Cirencester GL7 6JS, UK.
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  • Andrea Dávalos, Department of Biological Sciences, SUNY Cortland, Cortland, NY 13045, USA.
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  • Darío J Diaz Cosin, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
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  • Anahí Dominguez, Geology Department, FCEFQyN, ICBIA-CONICET (National Scientific and Technical Research Council), National University of Río Cuarto, X5804 BYA Río Cuarto, Argentina.
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  • Andrés Esteban Duhour, Laboratorio de Ecología, Instituto de Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable, Universidad Nacional de Luján, 6700 Luján, Argentina.
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  • Nick van Eekeren, Louis Bolk Institute, 3981 AJ Bunnik, Netherlands.
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  • Christoph Emmerling, Department of Soil Science, Faculty of Regional and Environmental Sciences, University of Trier, Campus II, 54286 Trier, Germany.
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  • Liliana B Falco, Ciencias Básicas, Instituto de Ecología y Desarrollo Sustentable-INEDES, Universidad Nacional de Luján, 6700 Luján, Argentina.
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  • Rosa Fernández, Institute of Evolutionary Biology (CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra), 08003 Barcelona, Spain.
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  • Steven J Fonte, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
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  • Carlos Fragoso, Biodiversity and Systematic Network, Instituto de Ecología A.C., Xalapa 91070, Mexico.
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  • André L C Franco, Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
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  • Martine Fugère, Département de Biologie, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke J1K 2R1, Canada.
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  • Abegail T Fusilero, Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Environmental Toxicology Unit (GhEnToxLab), Ghent University (UGent), Campus Coupure, Ghent, Belgium.
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  • Shaieste Gholami, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
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  • Michael J Gundale, Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, 90183 Umeå, Sweden.
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  • Mónica Gutiérrez López, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
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  • Davorka K Hackenberger, Department of Biology, J. J. Strossmayer University of Osijek, 31000 Osijek, Croatia.
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  • Luis M Hernández, Agricultural Engineering, Postgraduate Program in Agroecology, Maranhão State University, 65055-310 São Luís, Brazil.
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  • Takuo Hishi, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University, 949 Ohkawauchi, Shiiba 883-0402, Japan.
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  • Andrew R Holdsworth, Minnesota Pollution Control Agency, St. Paul, MN 55155, USA.
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  • Martin Holmstrup
  • Kristine N Hopfensperger, Biological Sciences, Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY 41099, USA.
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  • Esperanza Huerta Lwanga, Soil Physics and Land Management Degradation, Wageningen University and Research, 6708 PB Wageningen, Netherlands.
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  • Veikko Huhta, Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, 40014 Jyväskylä, Finland.
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  • Tunsisa T Hurisso, College of Agriculture, Environmental and Human Sciences, Lincoln University of Missouri, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA.
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  • Basil V Iannone, School of Forest Resources and Conservation, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA.
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  • Madalina Iordache, Sustainable Development and Environment Engineering, Banat's University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine "King Michael the 1st of Romania," 300645 Timisoara, Romania.
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  • Monika Joschko, Experimental Infrastructure Platform, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany.
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  • Nobuhiro Kaneko, Faculty of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Fukushima University, Kanayagawa 1, Fukushima City, Japan.
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  • Radoslava Kanianska, Department of Environmental Management, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Matej Bel University, Banská Bystrica, Slovakia.
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  • Aidan M Keith, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP, UK
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  • Courtland A Kelly, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA.
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  • Maria L Kernecker, Land Use and Governance, Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF), 15374 Müncheberg, Germany.
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  • Jonatan Klaminder, Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Climate Impacts Research Centre, Umeå University, 90187 Umeå, Sweden.
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  • Armand W Koné, UR Gestion Durable des Sols, UFR Sciences de la Nature, Université Nangui Abrogoua, 02 BP 801 Abidjan 02, Côte d'Ivoire.
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  • Yahya Kooch, Faculty of Natural Resources and Marine Sciences, Tarbiat Modares University, 46417-76489, Noor, Mazandaran, Iran.
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  • Sanna T Kukkonen, Production Systems, Horticulture Technologies, Natural Resources Institute Finland, 40500 Jyväskylä, Finland.
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  • H Lalthanzara, Department of Zoology, Pachhunga University College, Aizawl 796001, India.
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  • Daniel R Lammel, Soil Science, ESALQ-USP, Universidade de São Paulo, Piracicaba 13418, Brazil.
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  • Iurii M Lebedev, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991, Russia.
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  • Yiqing Li, College of Agriculture, Forestry and Natural Resource Management, University of Hawai'i, Hilo, HI 96720, USA.
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  • Juan B Jesus Lidon, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
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  • Noa K Lincoln, Tropical Plant and Soil Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawai'i at Mānoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA.
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  • Scott R Loss, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.
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  • Raphael Marichal, UR Systèmes de pérennes, CIRAD, Univ Montpellier, 34398 Montpellier, France.
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  • Radim Matula, Department of Forest Ecology, Faculty of Forestry and Wood Sciences, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague, 165 21 Prague, Czech Republic.
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  • Jan Hendrik Moos, Thuenen-Institute of Organic Farming, 23847 Westerau, Germany.
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  • Gerardo Moreno, Forestry School-INDEHESA, University of Extremadura, 10600 Plasencia, Spain.
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  • Alejandro Morón-Ríos, Conservación de la Biodiversidad, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, 24500 Campeche, Mexico.
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  • Bart Muys, Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, KU Leuven, 3001 Leuven, Belgium.
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  • Johan Neirynck, Research Institute for Nature and Forest, 9500 Geraardsbergen, Belgium.
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  • Lindsey Norgrove, School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, 3052 Zollikofen, Switzerland.
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  • Marta Novo, Biodiversity, Ecology and Evolution, Faculty of Biology, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain.
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  • Visa Nuutinen, Soil Ecosystems, Natural Resources Institute Finland (Luke), 31600 Jokioinen, Finland.
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  • Victoria Nuzzo, Natural Area Consultants, 1 West Hill School Road, Richford, NY 13835, USA.
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  • Mujeeb Rahman P, Department of Zoology, Pocker Sahib Memorial Orphanage College, Tirurangadi, Malappuram, Kerala, India.
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  • Johan Pansu, UMR7144 Adaptation et Diversité en Milieu Marin, Station Biologique de Roscoff, CNRS-Sorbonne Université, 29688 Roscoff, France.
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  • Shishir Paudel, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.
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  • Guénola Pérès, UMR SAS, INRA, Agrocampus Ouest, 35000 Rennes, France.
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  • Lorenzo Pérez-Camacho, Ecology and Forest Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá De Henares, Spain.
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  • Raúl Piñeiro, Computing, ESEI, Vigo, Edf. Politécnico-Campus As Lagoas, 32004 Ourense, Spain.
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  • Jean-François Ponge, Adaptations du Vivant, CNRS UMR 7179, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 91800 Brunoy, France.
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  • Muhammad Imtiaz Rashid, Environmental Sciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Sub-campus Vehari, Vehari 61100, Pakistan.
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  • Salvador Rebollo, Ecology and Forest Restoration Group, Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28801 Alcalá De Henares, Spain.
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  • Javier Rodeiro-Iglesias, Departamento de Informática, Escuela Superior de Ingeniería Informática, Universidad de Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain.
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  • Miguel Á Rodríguez, Group of Global Change Ecology and Evolution (GloCEE), Department of Life Sciences, University of Alcalá, 28805 Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
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  • Alexander M Roth, Friends of the Mississippi River, 101 East Fifth Street, St. Paul, MN 55108, USA.
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  • Guillaume X Rousseau, Postgraduate Program in Biodiversity and Conservation, Federal University of Maranhão, 65080-805 São Luís, Brazil.
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  • Anna Rozen, Institute of Environmental Sciences, Jagiellonian University, 30-087 Kraków, Poland.
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  • Ehsan Sayad, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran.
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  • Loes van Schaik, Institute of Ecology, Technical University of Berlin, 10587 Berlin, Germany.
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  • Bryant C Scharenbroch, College of Natural Resources, University of Wisconsin, Stevens Point, WI 54481, USA.
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  • Michael Schirrmann, Engineering for Crop Production, Leibniz Institute for Agricultural Engineering and Bioeconomy (ATB), 14469 Potsdam, Germany.
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  • Olaf Schmidt, UCD School of Agriculture and Food Science, University College Dublin, Belfield, Ireland.
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  • Boris Schröder, Landscape Ecology and Environmental Systems Analysis, Institute of Geoecology, Technische Universität Braunschweig, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany.
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  • Maxim P Shashkov, Laboratory of Computational Ecology, Institute of Mathematical Problems of Biology-Branch of Keldysh Institute of Applied Mathematics of Russian Academy of Sciences, Pushchino 142290, Russia.
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  • Jiro Tsukamoto, Faculty of Agriculture, Kochi University, Monobe Otsu 200, Nankoku 783-8502, Japan.
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  • Anne W de Valença, Food and Agriculture, WWF-Netherlands, 3708 JB Zeist, Netherlands.
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  • Irina V Zenkova, Laboratory of Terrestrial Ecosystems, Kola Science Centre, Institute of the North Industrial Ecology Problems, Apatity 184211, Russia.
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  • Erin K Cameron, Division of Physiology and Neuroscience, Department of Biosciences, Faculty of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Helsinki, P.O. Box 66, Helsinki, FI-00014, Finland.
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  • Nico Eisenhauer, Institute of Biology, Leipzig University, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.

Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, and biomass. We found that local species richness and abundance typically peaked at higher latitudes, displaying patterns opposite to those observed in aboveground organisms. However, high species dissimilarity across tropical locations may cause diversity across the entirety of the tropics to be higher than elsewhere. Climate variables were found to be more important in shaping earthworm communities than soil properties or habitat cover. These findings suggest that climate change may have serious implications for earthworm communities and for the functions they provide.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftScience (New York, N.Y.)
Vol/bind366
Nummer6464
Sider (fra-til)480-485
Antal sider8
ISSN0036-8075
DOI
StatusUdgivet - okt. 2019

Bibliografisk note

Copyright © 2019 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

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